Maternal use of opioids and other substances, the primary cause of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), is a leading cause of medical and developmental problems in the newborn. Substance use by pregnant women is also accompanied by medical, legal, and economic consequences for the mother. Substance abuse during pregnancy and consequent NAS in infants is a costly and significant clinical and social problem reaching epidemic proportions in the United States.1 In this issue of the Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Siu and Robinson2 provide a timely review of NAS and the current treatments used by most neonatal intensive care units. Although we must continue to study and refine the therapy for NAS, the challenges for the medical provider, mother, and society merit further discussion.

see related article on page 147

Desai and colleagues3 recently published a report of prescription...

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