Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a common infection, associated with significant morbidity and mortality in children. Factors associated with adverse treatment outcomes are poorly understood in the pediatric population.


Our study compared clinical and microbiologic characteristics of children admitted during a 5-year period (2007–2012) to a large university-based hospital and found to have S aureus bacteremia with outcome measures, in order to identify risk factors associated with treatment failure (defined as 30-day mortality, delayed microbiologic resolution, or recurrence of S aureus bacteremia within 60 days of completing effective antibiotic therapy).


In all, 71 patients were found to have S aureus bacteremia, and of these, 17 patients (24%) experienced treatment failure. Based on the logistic regression model, only high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration in combination with a high-risk source of infection (i.e., infected graft or device, intra-abdominal infection, or respiratory tract infection) was significantly associated with risk of treatment failure.


Infection associated with a high-risk source may increase the chance of treatment failure in pediatric patients with S aureus bacteremia. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration alone was not found to be a predictor of treatment outcomes.

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