An adverse consequence of primarily soybean oil–based parenteral nutrition is the development of intestinal failure–associated liver disease (IFALD), defined as bilirubin ≥ 2 mg/dL. Fish oil–containing lipid emulsion products, such as soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, fish oil lipid injectable emulsion (SMOF-ILE), have been shown to be beneficial in patients at risk of developing IFALD. This study aimed to review the safety profile of SMOF-ILE and soybean oil–based lipid injectable emulsion (SO-ILE) in regard to liver function and cholestasis in the pediatric and neonatal population.


A retrospective review was performed for patients who received SO-ILE or SMOF-ILE over a 3-year period. Patients < 18 years of age who received at least 2 weeks of either product were included. The primary endpoints were 2 consecutive bilirubin readings ≥ 2 mg/dL that were separated by at least 1 week and time to first bilirubin ≥ 2 mg/dL. Secondary endpoints included assessment of select laboratory values (i.e., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, serum creatinine, serum sodium, coagulation laboratory test, albumin) up to 6 months while on intravenous lipid products. Ursodiol use and mortality were also noted.


There was a higher prevalence of IFALD in pediatric patients receiving SO-ILE than those who received SMOF-ILE (32% vs 12%, p = 0.03). There was no detectable difference in the time it took for IFALD to develop (19 days vs 15 days, p = 0.08).


In our cohort of pediatric and neonatal patients, the incidence of IFALD was higher with SO-ILE than with SMOF-ILE.

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