With significant increases noted in adolescent marijuana use across the United States, perhaps as a result of legislative changes over the past half-decade, clinicians must be increasingly aware of the potential negative health effects. One such effect that warrants concern is cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) in the pediatric population. A systematic review of the literature was performed to determine the safety and efficacy of management strategies for CHS using PubMed, Scopus, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Search terms used in each database were “pediatric OR child OR children OR adolescent” AND “cannabinoid OR marijuana” AND “hyperemesis OR cyclic vomiting OR vomiting” NOT “seizure OR chemotherapy OR pregnancy OR cancer OR AIDS OR HIV.” Fourteen pieces of literature that described either effective, ineffective, or supportive management strategies for pediatric CHS were included in this review. Benzodiazepines were the most reported efficacious agents, followed by topical capsaicin cream and haloperidol. A total of 9 of the 14 studies described intravenous fluid resuscitation and hot bathing rituals as supportive measures, and 7 cases reported traditional antiemetics were ineffective for CHS. The heterogenicity of reported data, combined with the limited number of encounters, make it difficult to ascertain whether a definitive treatment strategy exists. Clinicians should be cognizant of pharmacotherapy agents that are efficacious, and perhaps more importantly, avoid using traditional antiemetic therapies that do not provide benefit.
Management of Pediatric Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Review
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Justin P. Reinert, O'Neill Niyamugabo, Kiersi S. Harmon, Norman E. Fenn; Management of Pediatric Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Review. The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1 May 2021; 26 (4): 339–345. doi: https://doi.org/10.5863/1551-6776-26.4.339
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