The purpose of this study was to compare acute kidney injury (AKI)–related outcomes of patients who received aminophylline in addition to standard of care with matched historical controls who received standard of care alone.


This was a single center, retrospective, historical control cohort study that included patients treated for AKI. Patients who received aminophylline from January 2017 to June 2018 were matched for age, sex, primary diagnosis, and hematopoietic cell transplant history in a 1:2 ratio to historical controls treated for AKI from July 2015 to September 2016. The primary outcome was improvement in AKI stage at 5 and 10 days from treatment initiation.


Twenty-seven patients who received aminophylline were matched to 54 historical controls. Fifty-eight patients (72%) had recently undergone hematopoietic cell transplant. At day 5, improvement in AKI stage was observed in 56% of patients in each group (p = 1.0); at day 10, improvement in AKI stage was observed in 75% of patients in the aminophylline group vs 70% of historical controls (p = 0.76). By day 10, serum creatinine levels had returned to baseline in 21% of patients in the aminophylline group and 34% of patients in the control group (p = 0.37).


Findings of this study demonstrated no difference in the rate of AKI resolution or in the proportion of patients with resolved AKI when aminophylline was added to standard of care for the treatment of AKI in this pediatric hematology/oncology population.

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