Drug-induced kidney injury contributes to morbidity and mortality in hospitalized children. Antibiotics such as TZP have been implicated in the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in adults; however, data are limited in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of AKI in hospitalized children receiving TZP.
This was a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized children between 2 months and 19 years of age who received TZP for at least 48 hours. Acute kidney injury was defined as a 50% increase from the initial serum creatinine (SCr) prior to TZP initiation. Serum creatinine values were adjusted for fluid balance using a validated approach. Severity of AKI was characterized using the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease (pRIFLE) criteria. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe the incidence and risk factors of AKI, with an alpha = 0.05.
A total of 65 subjects were included. Twenty-five (38.5%) required PICU admission. The incidence of AKI was 7.7% (n = 5) using adjusted SCr (13.37 cases/1000 patient-days). According to pRIFLE, 6.15% (n = 4) subjects met criteria for Risk (n = 3) or Injury (n = 1), and none developed Failure, Loss, or End-Stage (10.70 cases/1000 patient-days for Risk and Injury categories). No risk factors were identified. Hospital length of stay was longer in subjects who experienced AKI compared with those who did not (p = 0.04).
The incidence of AKI in hospitalized children exposed to TZP was low. In those who did develop AKI, peak SCr occurred approximately 1 week after TZP initiation.