Vancomycin dosing requirements to achieve a target area under curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) of 400 to 600 mg•hr/L have not been established in pediatrics. Dose modeling studies and recent guidelines suggest dosing higher than historical recommendations. This study examines dosing requirements to achieve target AUC/MIC in human pediatric patients.
This retrospective study includes 77 patients, aged 1 month to 18 years, at a single center, who received at least 2 days of intravenous vancomycin with a pharmacokinetic monitoring note and calculated AUC/MIC. Dosing to achieve target AUC/MIC was evaluated by age and indication. Nephrotoxicity was also assessed.
The mean dose required to achieve target AUC/MIC for all patients was 67.7 mg/kg/day. Adjusting for age, the mean dose required to achieve target AUC/MIC of 400 to 600 mg•hr/L was found to be statistically significantly different among 3 age cohorts: 1 month to 5 years, 6 to 12 years, and 13 to 18 years [F(2,74) = 15.32, p < 0.001], with mean requirements of 79 ± 14.1, 65.6 ± 21.1, and 53.9 ± 17.1 mg/kg/day, respectively. Dosing requirements were also found to be statistically significantly different across indications [F(6,70) = 4.84, p < 0.001]. Acute kidney injury was identified in 5 patients (6.5%).
The vancomycin dose required to achieve target AUC/MIC in pediatrics was significantly higher in younger pediatric patients and ranged from 53.9 to 79 mg/kg/day, confirming recent guideline recommendations. Doses can be further adjusted for indication. Nephrotoxicity rates remain low compared with historical rates with single trough monitoring.