Initial posaconazole dosing regimens in children often do not achieve target concentrations, and data continue to support the need for higher initial dosing regimens. The objective of this study is to contribute to the current data regarding suboptimal posaconazole dosing in pediatric patients by retrospectively observing dosing strategies and subsequent drug concentrations.
This study was conducted at a single institution in 27 patients aged 1 to 21 years. Patients who were initiated on any formulation of posaconazole for prophylaxis or treatment while admitted to the hospital were included. The primary outcome was to determine the percentage of pediatric patients who achieved the targeted trough concentration using their initial posaconazole dosing regimen. Secondary outcomes included percentage of patients who experienced a breakthrough invasive fungal infection (IFI), percentage of patients with elevated liver function tests (LFTs), and discontinuation for any reason.
There were 15 patients (55.5%) who reached desired trough serum concentration after the initial dosing regimen. The number of dose modifications to achieve the desired trough ranged from 1 to 3. Most patients received delayed-release tablets (n = 17), and the average doses for reaching prophylactic and treatment trough concentrations were 6.1 mg/kg/day and 11 mg/kg/day, respectively. There were 2 patients (7.4%) who experienced breakthrough IFI. Overall, 5 patients developed elevated LFTs and 7 patients discontinued treatment early.
The results describe a single population of pediatric patients, of whom 55% were able to achieve target trough concentrations of posaconazole with the initial dosing strategy used.