Pharmacy-driven antibiotic dosing services have been shown to improve clinical outcomes in adult patients. This study evaluated the effect of a pharmacist-driven antimicrobial dosing service on the percentage of therapeutic serum concentrations achieved following initial vancomycin or aminoglycoside dosing regimens. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of the dosing service on nephrotoxicity in pediatric patients.
This single-center, retrospective study used data obtained from an electronic medical record to evaluate the utility of a pharmacist-driven vancomycin or aminoglycoside dosing protocol. Assessments of target, subtherapeutic, and supratherapeutic serum concentrations were evaluated. The occurrence of changes in serum creatinine and presentation of acute kidney injury (AKI) were also determined.
The incidence (n [%]) of a therapeutic initial serum concentration was not statistically significant between pre-protocol and post-protocol groups (21 [46.7%] vs 22 [48.9%], respectively; p = 0.834). The incidence of initial supratherapeutic concentrations (19 [42.2%] vs 7 [15.6%]; p = 0.005) and the average number of supratherapeutic concentrations per antibiotic course (0.76 vs 0.26; p = 0.01) were higher in the pre-protocol group compared with the post-protocol group. The incidence of AKI was significantly lower in the post-protocol group (2.2% vs 13.3%; p = 0.049).
Implementation of a pharmacist-driven dosing service did not affect the likelihood of achieving an initial therapeutic concentration. However, it did reduce the likelihood of both supratherapeutic concentrations and AKI. Additional studies in pediatric patients are needed to affirm the use of pharmacist dosing services.