Azithromycin has been explored as a treatment option for eradication of Ureaplasma and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm neonates. However, there is debate about the need for eradication of Ureaplasma and whether azithromycin is safe and efficacious for this indication. This literature review provides an overview of the evidence for use of azithromycin for eradication of Ureaplasma and prevention of BPD, including dosing and duration of azithromycin used in these studies. The literature search included articles published in the English language in Medline and PubMed from 1946 to January 2022. Relevant citations within identified articles were also reviewed. A total of 9 studies representing 388 neonates were included. The percentage of neonates that tested positive for Ureaplasma in these studies ranged from 18.6% to 57.1%. Azithromycin was initiated at <3 days of life in 8 studies (88.9%). Dosing was variable and ranged from 5 to 20 mg/kg/dose administered once daily, and the duration of treatment ranged from 1 to 35 days. Most studies used intravenous azithromycin. Overall, azithromycin was more efficacious than placebo at Ureaplasma eradication; however, most of these studies did not find a difference in the incidence of BPD between patients receiving azithromycin versus placebo. No adverse effects, specifically pyloric stenosis or QT interval prolongation, were noted in these studies.

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