Lipid emulsion contributes to parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC). For decades, soybean oil–based intravenous lipid emulsion (SO-ILE) was the predominant product. Recently, a multicomponent lipid emulsion containing soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil and fish oil (SMOF-ILE) has been used off-label in neonatal care. This study evaluates the incidence of PNAC in neonates who received SMOF-ILE or SO-ILE.


This was a retrospective review of neonates who received SMOF-ILE or SO-ILE for at least 14 days. Patients receiving SMOF-ILE were matched based on gestational age (GA) and birth weight to a historical cohort receiving SO-ILE. The primary outcomes were the incidences of PNAC among all patients and patients without intestinal failure. The secondary outcomes were clinical outcomes and incidence of PNAC stratified by GA. Clinical outcomes included liver function tests, growth parameters, and development of retinopathy of prematurity and intraventricular hemorrhage.


Forty-three neonates who received SMOF-ILE were matched to 43 neonates who received SOILE. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The incidence of PNAC in the total population was 12% in the SMOF-ILE cohort and 23% in the SO-ILE cohort (p = 0.26). The lipid dosage of SMOF-ILE was significantly higher at time of peak direct serum bilirubin concentration compared with SO-ILE cohort (p = 0.05). Clinically significant differences were noted in laboratory endpoints in several subgroups.


There was no significant difference in the incidence of PNAC among neonates in a SMOFILE cohort compared with a historical SO-ILE cohort.

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