Although enoxaparin is used to treat thromboembolism in children, current treatment guidelines are largely extrapolated from adults. The objectives of this study were to determine: i) correlation between enoxaparin dose and anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) level, ii) intra-patient variability, and iii) whether dose or anti-Xa level is a predictor of outcomes. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all hospitalized patients receiving enoxaparin in a tertiary care pediatric institution. Simple linear regression, coefficient of variation (CV), and Student's t-test were used to analyze the objectives. Eighty treatment courses with interpretable anti-Xa levels were analyzed. Mean patient age was 6.5 years. Mean enoxaparin dose was 1.10 mg/kg q12h. Correlation between initial dosing and anti-Xa level was poor; R2 = 0.0307 and 0.0237 for patients > 2 months with and without cardiac or renal diseases, respectively. Four out of seven patients ≤ 2 months of age compared to 4/32 patients > 2 months had a CV > 40%. Similarly, 4/12 cardiac patients compared to 4/27 non-cardiac patients had a CV > 40%. Neither dose nor anti-Xa level predicted treatment success or adverse reactions (P > .05). These results suggest a need to reexamine the use of anti-Xa levels for guiding enoxaparin therapy. Further prospective studies are warranted to clarify whether routine or selective anti-Xa monitoring should be recommended in pediatric patients.

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