Scholarly research conducted by former National Institute of Mental Health Director Frank Ochberg (2006), the American Psychological Association (2003), and Rosenberg et al. (2001) show that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), especially exposure therapy, is effective in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on a psychobiological level. Yet according to studies by Becker, Zayfert, and Anderson (2003) and Cahill, Foa, Hembree, Marshall, and Nacash (2006), many psychologists and master's-level clinicians do not include an exposure therapy component in their treatment of PTSD.

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