Our aim was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of Chlamydia suis and other Chlamydiaceae in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) population of Switzerland and Northern Italy and the detection of tetracycline resistance genes by PCR. We collected a total of 471 conjunctival swabs (n=292), rectal swabs (n=147), and lung tissue samples (n=32) belonging to 292 wild boars. The prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in the investigated wild boar populations was very low (1.4%, 4/292). We found C. suis in rectal or conjunctival swabs but not in lung samples. The low chlamydial prevalence might be attributed to limited contacts between wild boars and outdoor domestic pigs due to strict biosecurity measures or limited numbers of rural pig herds. The tetA(C) gene fragment was detected in six samples, which were all negative for Chlamydiaceae, and was probably not of chlamydial origin but more likely from other bacteria. The low tetracycline resistance rate in wild boar might be explained by the lack of selective pressure. However, transmission of resistance genes from domestic pigs to wild boar or selective pressure in the environment could lead to the development and spread of tetracycline-resistant C. suis strains in wild boars.

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