Trematode infestation of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) varies between northern Poland and the Czech Republic. We determined the trematode fauna of juvenile and adult Mallards from Poland in 2010–16 (n=79 Mallards) and from the Czech Republic in 1964–2001 (n=296). Infracommunity diversity of trematodes from juvenile Mallards, defined by the Brillouin index and mean number of species, was significantly greater in Poland than it was in the Czech Republic. There were more species and greater biodiversity in the trematode communities of Mallards from Poland, where the environment is more natural and less altered by human activity than it is in the Czech Republic. In the trematode community of juvenile Mallards, the Simpson's index of biodiversity was higher in the Czech Republic than it was in Poland. The Berger-Parker dominance index was comparable in both countries. In terms of prevalence, the structure of the trematode fauna was hierarchic, and trematode species had different positions in this hierarchy in the two countries. Statistically significant differences in the epidemiologic indices between infection of juvenile Mallards from Poland and the Czech Republic were noted for Bilharziella polonica, Echinostoma miyagawai, Echinostoma revolutum, Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Prosthogonimus ovatus, Notocotylus attenuatus, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Australapatemon minor, Apatemon gracilis, Cyathocotyle prussica, Hypoderaeum conoideum, Metorchis xanthosomus, Psilochasmus oxyurus, and Cotylurus cornutus.

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