Anticoagulant rodenticides (AR), principally difethialone, brodifacoum, and bromadiolone, were detected in the livers of 89% of 72 Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) from New York City, New York, US examined for cause of death over a 7-yr period (January 2012–December 2018). Fatal hemorrhage likely attributable to AR exposure was diagnosed in 41% (30/74) of cases, and 46% (18/39) of the cases analyzed with no gross evidence of AR-mediated hemorrhage had liver concentrations of AR that overlapped those with an AR-poisoning diagnosis. Although urban areas like New York City can support surprisingly dense populations of Red-tailed Hawks, the threat posed by extensive use of AR can be large.

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