We evaluated the safety and efficacy of nalbuphine (40 mg/mL), plus medetomidine (10 mg/mL), plus azaperone (10 mg/mL) under the premixed label NalMed-A. From January to March 2020, 10 aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) were immobilized via dart-gun for seven separate sampling periods for a total of 45 recorded individual immobilization events. Induction and reversal times with NalMed-A were 5.53±2.61 min and (following atipamezole administration) 5.08±2.43 min while previous studies with alpha-2 agonist–ketamine combinations gave median and average induction times of 4.6 min and 11.2 min using medetomidine-ketamine and xylazine-ketamine, respectively. Overall, NalMed-A adequately immobilized aoudad, with 13% incidence of hyperthermia and 2.22% mortality when delivered via dart.

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