Elaeophora schneideri is a filarial nematode of North America that occasionally infects aberrant ruminant hosts such as moose (Alces alces). The role E. schneideri plays in clinical morbidity or mortality of moose remains uncertain. We sampled predominantly hunter-killed adult moose (n=127) to characterize the spatial patterns of prevalence and intensity of worms in carotid arteries of moose in Montana. We compared prevalence and intensity of E. schneideri within these moose to a separate sample of adult moose that died of health-related causes (n=34). We found lower prevalence in northwest Montana (0.06) than in the remainder of the state (0.42). We also found both higher prevalence of E. schneideri and higher intensity to be correlated with increased probability of health-related mortality. Our results suggest presence and intensity of E. schneideri correlate with mortality of moose, although the mechanisms of mortality remain uncertain.