Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella spp. larvae. Consumption of wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat represents an important source of human trichinellosis worldwide. In El Palmar National Park (EPNP), Argentina, invasive alien wild boars are controlled and meat from culled animals is released for public consumption following on-site artificial digestion (AD) testing. Meat trimmings and offal from the control program are often used as food for dogs (Canis familiaris). We evaluated infection and exposure to Trichinella spp. in wild boars from EPNP, as well as exposure to Trichinella spp. and associated risk factors in dogs and human consumers of wild boar meat. Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in muscle samples from 5/49 wild boars by AD (10.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8%–23%), with a mean burden of 0.24 larvae per gram (lpg; range, 0.06–0.95 lpg). Anti-Trichinella antibodies were not detected in wild boar serum samples (n=42). In dogs, 12/34 were seropositive to Trichinella spp. (35.29%; 95%, CI, 20.3%–53.5%). Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies were not detected in human serum samples (n=63). Our results reveal the presence, albeit at low prevalence, of Trichinella spp. in wild boars and exposure in dogs fed game offal. These findings suggest that the low prevalence and parasitic load in wild boars, together with the best practices applied by EPNP culling program personnel, contribute to keeping the risk of infection in people low. The dog results highlight that the parasite is circulating in the area, and therefore the risk of infection is not negligible. We recommend the implementation of an animal surveillance strategy in order to monitor the evolution of this zoonosis in the study area.

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