Adiaspiromycosis is a nontransmissible infectious pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of propagules from fungal species belonging to the family Ajellomicetaceae, especially Emergomyces crescens. Adiaspiromycosis caused by E. crescens has been recorded in a broad number of species worldwide, with small burrowing mammals being considered the main hosts for this environmental pathogen. Only a handful of studies on adiaspiromycosis in European wildlife has been published to date. We assessed the occurrence of adiaspiromycosis in wild rodents (Murinae and Arvicolinae) from the central Spanish Pyrenees (NE Spain). The lungs of 302 mice and 46 voles were screened for the presence of adiaspores through histopathologic examination. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis was recorded in 21.6% of all individuals (75/348), corresponding to 63/299 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) and 12/40 bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Adiaspore burden varied highly between animals, with a mean of 0.19 spores/mm2 and a percentage of affected lung tissue ranging from <0.01% to >8%. These results show that the infection is present in wild rodents from the central Spanish Pyrenees. Although the impact of this infection on nonendangered species is potentially mild, it might contribute to genetic diversity loss in endangered species.

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