Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) are capable of infecting a wide variety of animals. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been recognized as an important wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis. We screened wild boar in Slovenia for the presence of (1) Mycobacterium bovis in tissues and (2) antibodies to M. bovis in blood samples. In 2016 and 2017, 1284 tissue samples from 676 wild boar were subjected to cultivation. In 2018 and 2019, blood samples from 132 wild boar were examined using an ELISA kit. None of the MTC species were isolated from the tissue samples, and no antibodies to M. bovis were detected in the blood samples. Several nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and/or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, were found in the tissues of 9.8% of the wild boar: Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, Mycobacterium peregrinum/Mycobacterium septicum, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium engbaekii, Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium algericum, Mycobacterium bohemicum, Mycobacterium confluentis, Mycobacterium flavescens, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium thermoresistibile, and Mycobacterium vaccae. Species-level identification was not possible for 21.2% of the isolates. At the time of the study, wild boar in Slovenia were not at risk from bTB; the significance of the presence of NTM in wild boar remains to be clarified and evaluated from a One Health perspective.

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