Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) are oncogenic retroviruses that can cause disease in wild and domestic fowl. Lymphoproliferative disease virus infections are common and widespread in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the US and east-central Canada, while REV has been detected worldwide in numerous avian host species. We tested tissues (spleen, liver, and/or bone marrow, plus neoplastic tissue, if present) from 172 Wild Turkeys that underwent necropsy from December 2018 through October 2021 for both viruses using PCR. We evaluated demographic, geographic, temporal, and seasonal data by chi-square test of independence and logistic regression for turkeys infected with LPDV and/or REV. At least one of these retroviruses was detected in 80.8% (139/172) of Wild Turkeys from 15 US states, with significantly more turkeys being positive for LPDV (72.1%, 124/172) versus REV (43.6%, 75/172; P<0.001). Both viruses (coinfections) were detected in 34.9% (60/172) of turkeys. Among LPDV-infected turkeys (including coinfections), bone marrow had the highest detection rate (38/58, 65.5%), significantly higher than spleen (30/58, 51.7%) and liver (20/58, 34.5%; P<0.001). In REV-infected turkeys, bone marrow had the highest detection rate (24/58, 41.4%). All three tissues (spleen, liver, bone marrow) concurrently tested positive in most (15/25, 60%) REV-infected turkeys. These results suggest LPDV tissue tropism for bone marrow, whereas REV may have broader tissue tropism. Histopathology consistent with lymphoid proliferation and/or neoplasia characteristic of lymphoproliferative disease was evident in 29/172 (16.9%) turkeys assessed, including two REV-only–infected turkeys. Season was significantly associated with LPDV prevalence (highest in winter); year and season were both significantly associated with REV prevalence (highest in 2020 and winter). These data contribute to optimizing diagnostic strategies that may aid in pathogen monitoring and improve detections to increase our understanding of the potential impacts of these viruses on Wild Turkey populations.

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