Elaeophorosis, infection by the filarial worm Elaeophora schneideri, is a parasitic disease of wild ungulates in North America; however, our understanding of the relevance of E. schneideri to moose (Alces alces) morbidity and mortality is incomplete. Between March 2020 and July 2022, necropsy and histopathology were performed on 61 Shiras moose (Alces alces shirasi) in Idaho, US. Among the 41 adults (greater than 1 yr old), 21 moose were from northern Idaho, and 20 were from southeastern Idaho. Elaeophorosis was diagnosed in 24% (10 of 41). All 10 infected moose were from southeastern Idaho; none of the 21 moose from northern Idaho were infected. No juvenile moose (nine from northern and 11 from southeastern Idaho) were infected. Microfilariae were detected histologically in 9 of 10 infected moose, most consistently in brain tissue associated with lesions indicative of ischemic injury to the neuroparenchyma attributed to occlusion of arterioles and capillaries by microfilariae or fibrin thrombi, including edema, necrosis, and glial nodules. Microfilariae found in other tissues of the head, including the eye, tongue, and pinnae of some animals, as well as in lung, heart, liver, and kidney, typically were associated with inflammation. Three of the 10 infected moose had cropped ears attributed to elaeophorosis, and four exhibited abnormal behavior, which may have been due to neuropathology associated with E. schneideri microfilariae in the brain.

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