Chronic bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed in two free-ranging Eastern box turtles. Mucoid exudation into the upper respiratory tract and bilateral, caseating pneumonia were seen grossly. Microscopically, chronic, active inflammation with pseudomembrane formation occurred in the nasal sinuses and lungs while caseating granuloma-like structures were also observed in alveoli and associated infundibulae. Since viral, protozoal or fungal agents could neither be demonstrated in tissue sections by light or electronmicros-copy, nor could they be isolated in vitro, the gram-negative bacteria, seen in large numbers within the lesions and easily cultured in vitro, were considered the etiologic agents of this disease.

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