Blood samples were collected from free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) harvested in Michigan's northern Lower Peninsula, from moose (Alces alces) relocated from Ontario's Algonquin Provincial Park to Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and from moose from Michigan's Isle Royale National Park. Sera were tested by serum dilution neutralization tests in Vero cell culture for neutralizing antibody to California serogroup viruses, in particular Jamestown Canyon (JC), La Crosse/snowshoe hare (LAC/SSH), and trivittatus (TVT) viruses. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected in 71% of 31 and 65% of 20 moose from Algonquin and Isle Royale, respectively. An additional six moose from Algonquin and five from Isle Royale showed evidence of multiple infection. One juvenile moose from Isle Royale had specific neutralizing antibody to TVT virus. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected also in 54% of 50 elk from Michigan; 20 of the 50 elk showed evidence of multiple infection. While no single serum sample showed specific neutralizing antibody only to LAC/SSH virus, its presence in sera from some animals may have been masked by the high prevalence of antibody to JC virus.

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Author notes


Laboratory for Arbovirus Research and Surveillance, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA


Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Rose Lake Wildlife Research Center, East Lansing, Michigan 48823, USA


Present address: Michigan State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA