Black fly feeding alone and in concert with Leucocytozoon spp. infection caused mortality in fledgling great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) in the Yukon, Canada 1990 to 1991. These mortalities occurred during a year of food shortage corresponding with a decline in the population of snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), the main prey for great horned owls. We hypothesize an interaction between food availability and the consequences of host-parasite interactions.

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