The demography and serology of a population of wild meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were monitored from 1982 to 1984 near Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada. Serologic tests were performed on 486 samples to detect the presence of viral antibodies to 11 common murine viruses. Meadow voles showed evidence of infection with Theiler's encephalomyelitis, reovirus-type-3, ectromelia, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, adenovirus, and mouse hepatitis viruses. At times of good survival and breeding performance the population was nearly free of evidence of viral infection. During a period of severe mortality in the winter of 1982–1983, evidence of infection by Theiler's encephalomyelitis virus and reovirus-type-3 was obtained. A high prevalence of antibodies and high titers to these two viruses were characteristic of voles that were captured late in the decline in density in the spring of 1983. This association of mortality with a viral outbreak is consistent with the hypothesis that vole population declines are sometimes related to opportunistic pathogens present in the voles' biotic and social environment.

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