Two hundred and eighty one serum samples collected from free-ranging black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceros, in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), Namibia, and Kenya from 1987–97, were examined for antibody to 16 different infectious agents. Positive antibody titers were detected against Akabane (59.8%), bluetongue (55%), African horse sickness (27.9%), epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer (19.4%), parainfluenza type 3 (25.3%), bovine herpes virus 1 (3.1%), equine herpes virus 1 (8.8%) and bovine viral diarrhea (1.2%) viruses, and four serovars of Leptospira interrogans, (ranging 1.2 to 8.8%). No antibody was detected against Rift Valley fever virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, Brucella abortus, and Trypanosoma equiperdum. Interspecies differences were detected for African horse sickness, epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. There appeared to be some geographic variation in the prevalence of antibody for African horse sickness, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer, parainfluenza type 3, equine herpes virus 1 and Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava.

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