The population health of endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) was monitored from 10 February 1986 to 28 September 2000 by necropsy of animals that were killed by vehicles, euthanized because of terminal injuries or disease conditions, or found dead. The predominant mortality factor during the period was collision with motor vehicles; however, several infectious diseases were diagnosed, including infections with Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Haemonchus contortus, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. During the period monitored, the only infectious disease that was thought to have affected population dynamics was haemonchosis. Nevertheless, several of the observed diseases have potential to impact viability of the Key deer population under appropriate environmental conditions.

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