From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were positive for EBHSV-antigen. Antibodies against EBHSV were detected in only one individual. Based on negative staining electron microscopy of spleen homogenates, we observed calicivirus in one of five EBHSV-antigen positive hares. However, EBHS has not been reported to cause abnormal mortality in these hares. This is the first report of antibodies to EBHSV, EBHSV-antigen, and electron microscopy findings in free-ranging European brown hares from South America.

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