Cilia-associated respiratory (CAR) bacillus is an unclassified bacterium that colonizes the ciliated epithelium of airways in laboratory rats, laboratory mice, and laboratory and conventionally reared rabbits, cattle, goats, and pigs. Data on the prevalence of CAR bacillus infection in wild animals are lacking. The present study demonstrated the occurrence of the organism in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the Val Fontana in northern Italy. Prevalence ranged from 26% for red deer to 56% for chamois, with a statistically significant negative correlation between CAR bacilli infection and the presence of lymphoid follicles.

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