During the 1990s, pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) populations declined in Arizona, USA. To investigate potential causes of decline, we collected blood samples from hunter-harvested male pronghorn from 2001 to 2003 on four Arizona sites. Sera were tested for antibody to parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI3), bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), bluetongue virus (BTV), and Chlamydia psittaci. Antibody against PI3 was found in 33% of the samples, whereas antibody against BTV/EHDV was found in 77%. Antibodies to other pathogens were found at low prevalence rates. Although pronghorn decline in Arizona is probably not directly related to disease, potential reproductive effects of BTV/EHDV and PI3 infection on pronghorn in Arizona merit further study.

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