A 2-year-old male moose (Alces alces) attempted to winter 500 km north of the tree line, outside of moose range, and died as a result. The dead moose was found in May near the Kazan River at 63°53′N, 95°36′W, Northwest Territories. Analysis of the marrow from the right legs yielded lipid values ranging from 1.12–16.9%. Sedges (Carex sp.) and willow (Salix sp.) were the only components of the rumen contents. Comparison of weather data and the use of wind chill factors and basal metabolic rate demonstrate the physiological improbability of a moose surviving the winter on the open tundra.

This content is only available as a PDF.

Author notes


Canadian Wildlife Service, Eastern Region, 2721 Highway 31, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.


Canadian Wildlife Service, Pathology Section, 6 Beechwood Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.


Northwest Territories Game Management Service, Baker Lake, N.W.T., Canada.