Introduction

Pharmacists focusing on psychotropic medication management and practicing across a wide variety of healthcare settings have significantly improved patient-level outcomes. The Systematic Literature Review Committee of the American Association of Psychiatric Pharmacists was tasked with compiling a comprehensive database of primary literature highlighting the impact of psychiatric pharmacists on patient-level outcomes.

Methods

A systematic search of literature published from January 1, 1961, to December 31, 2022, was conducted using PubMed and search terms based on a prior American Association of Psychiatric Pharmacists literature review. Publications describing patient-level outcome results associated with pharmacist provision of care in psychiatric/neurologic settings and/or in relation to psychotropic medications were included. The search excluded articles for which there was no pharmacist intervention, no psychiatric disorder treatment, no clinical outcomes, no original research, no access to full text, and/or no English-language version.

Results

A total of 4270 articles were reviewed via PubMed, with 4072 articles excluded based on title, abstract, and/or full text in the initial pass and 208 articles selected for inclusion. A secondary full-text review excluded 11 additional articles, and 5 excluded articles were ultimately included based on a secondary review, for a final total of 202 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. A comprehensive database of these articles was compiled, including details on their study designs and outcomes.

Discussion

The articles included in the final database had a wide range of heterogeneity. While the overall impact of psychiatric pharmacists was positive, the study variability highlights the need for future publications to have more consistent, standardized outcomes with stronger study designs.

In 2020, approximately 1 in 5 adults in the United States were living with a psychiatric disorder, which translates to approximately 52.9 million individuals.1  Additionally, an average of 17% of young people experience an emotional, mental, or behavioral disorder.2  Psychotropic medications make up nearly 20% of the treatment approaches for psychiatric disorders.3  Therefore, optimizing the safe and effective use of psychiatric medications is paramount. Pharmacists focusing on psychotropic medications and practicing across a wide variety of healthcare settings have significantly improved patient-level outcomes, including attaining therapeutic goals, improving medication adherence, managing adverse effects, and avoiding hospitalizations.4  In 1996, the Board-Certified Psychiatric Pharmacist (BCPP) credential was established, further demonstrating pharmacists’ expertise with appropriate training in managing these disorders.

Abundant evidence exists regarding pharmacist practices and their impact on patient care in psychiatric and neurologic settings. The American Association of Psychiatric Pharmacists (AAPP) Systematic Literature Review Committee developed a methodology to review articles highlighting psychiatric pharmacists’ impact on medication-related outcomes. The methodology provides a mechanism to identify newly published literature to continuously add to the current research outcomes, further supporting the impact of psychiatric pharmacists in a systematic approach.

This project aimed to identify, review, and evaluate primary literature published up to December 31, 2022, highlighting the improved patient-level, medication-related outcomes psychiatric pharmacists achieve as a part of the healthcare team.

A systematic search of literature published from January 1, 1961, to December 31, 2022, was conducted using PubMed. Limiting articles to PubMed ensured that all relevant studies were found in journals that abide by specific quality standards. PubMed also supports complex search queries and can export all results in a structured format; articles dating only as far back as 1961 were returned in the match. Other databases were excluded because the output required to review these additional articles would result in diminishing returns.

The search terms from the previous AAPP literature review4  were expanded to include disease-state terms associated with all categories of major psychiatric disorders and select major neurologic disorders with psychiatric manifestations that are primarily or secondarily treated with psychotropic medications (Table 1).4  The search was limited to papers with at least 1 “pharmacist” and 1 “psychiatric” term. Articles were additionally excluded based on article type and title keywords that strongly indicated that the article was not original clinical research. Terms such as “pain” were omitted from the query, such that pain studies were only included when they involved psychiatric comorbidity(ies).

TABLE 1

PubMed search criteria

PubMed search criteria
PubMed search criteria

A final search of PubMed was performed on January 10, 2023, with a publication date filter of December 31, 2022. The results from PubMed were loaded into a spreadsheet to track inclusion and exclusion. The author group completed manual reviews of each article and documented inclusion or exclusion on the spreadsheet. Any questionable articles were brought to the group for further discussion. An article was manually excluded if it met any of the following 6 criteria:

  1. No pharmacist intervention

  2. No treatment of psychiatric disorder

  3. No clinical outcomes

  4. Not original research

  5. No full-text access

  6. No English-language version

A second reviewer evaluated at least 5% of excluded articles, predetermined by the authors, to confirm the accuracy and appropriateness of the exclusion. Publications with results describing patient-level outcomes associated with pharmacist provision of care in psychiatric/neurologic settings and/or in relation to psychotropic medications were included. Table 2 lists each study evaluator’s characterization and description of the study design and outcome measures. The quadruple aims, which include improved care, reduced healthcare costs, improved patient experience, and improved healthcare provider well-being, were also tracked for included articles to enhance outcomes data.

TABLE 2

Study characteristics

Study characteristics
Study characteristics

The Figure depicts the article identification, screening and eligibility, and total articles selected. A total of 4270 articles were pulled for review via PubMed. The study authors excluded 4072 articles based on title, abstract, and/or full text in the initial pass, with 208 articles selected for inclusion. The authors completed a second review of 7.5% of the articles, rather than the planned 5%. After a secondary review, 11 articles initially included were excluded, and 5 of 307 articles excluded were included, leaving a final total of 202 articles meeting the inclusion criteria (see Appendix). The top 6 journals by article count were the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association (14), the Mental Health Clinician (11), the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (8), the American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy (6), the Annals of Pharmacotherapy (6), and Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy (6). Over half of these articles were published in the United States. Patient demographics and other study characteristics are presented in Table 2.

FIGURE

Review flow diagram

FIGURE

Review flow diagram

Close modal

All applicable outcome measures and quadruple aims for each study were included during the study review, resulting in a total percentage exceeding 100 for each of these characteristics. Response to study treatment was the most common outcome measure in 141 total studies (69.5%). Other outcome measures tracked in the order of most to least frequent were medication-based (60 studies), patient experience/adherence (48), resource utilization (47), adverse outcome (24), cost-based (19), time-based (17), and retention/referral (13). Of the studies, 57% had more than 1 applicable outcome measure. Quadruple aims tracked from the most to least frequent were better care (202 studies; 4.5% had negative outcomes), improved patient experience (45), reduced health care costs (27; 3.7% had negative outcomes), and provider well-being (1). Almost one-fourth of the studies (23.8%) had more than 1 applicable quadruple aim.

Tobacco use disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD) were the most frequently assessed disease states, accounting for 38 and 27 included studies, respectively. All other specified disease states accounted for less than 10 included articles each, while a total of 81 (40.1%) did not specify the disease state being evaluated. In the general outpatient and community settings, psychiatric pharmacists increased smoking cessation response rates through methods such as behavioral counseling and/or nicotine replacement therapy.5–10  Psychiatric pharmacists improved depression symptom scores in various clinical settings. Inpatients demonstrated reductions in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 symptom scores.11,12  Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores improved for patients in outpatient general, outpatient specialty, and community pharmacy settings when a psychiatric pharmacist was involved in their care. Patients diagnosed with depression had enhanced medication adherence.13–16  Patients seeking treatment for multiple disease states, including smoking cessation, depression, post-stroke/transient ischemic attack, and neurological disorders, reported better satisfaction and attitudes.5,8,10,16–31  Representing 72.8% of authorship, patients in long-term care facilities, outpatient general clinics, inpatient, primary care clinics, and community settings demonstrated improved satisfaction and attitudes when a psychiatric pharmacist was involved in their care.14,18,24,32–36  In addition, the presence of a psychiatric pharmacist improved the number of patients seen per month, the hours of direct care provided, the number of patient contacts, rehospitalization rates, the number of medications prescribed, and the length of stay.37–50 

Most of the included studies (83.2%) did not report any Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) certification, including BCPP designation, or other advanced clinical training among the researchers. Some studies without evidence of BPS certification were published before the establishment of BCPP designation. Only 24 (11.9%) articles had at least 1 BCPP mentioned in the body of the paper as a part of the intervention. Eleven (5.4%) included authors with non-psychiatric certifications. The number of BCPPs represented in authorship varied by year, but no trend could be identified. Of the 64 articles from 2020 to 2022, 8 (12.5%) had at least 1 BCPP represented based on details included in the article, and 2 (3.1%) had at least 1 author with a non-psychiatric BPS certification. While BPS may not have been explicitly mentioned in the article, intervention by a “psychiatric pharmacist” was noted based on the description of the pharmacists’ training and/or experience, such as completing a psychiatric pharmacy residency or years of experience in the psychiatric setting.

With 4270 articles reviewed, this was the most extensive and comprehensive evaluation of primary literature to date, highlighting the impact of psychiatric pharmacists on patient-level outcomes. The database underscores the wide range of clinical settings psychiatric pharmacists practice as well as the varied outcomes measured by their efforts. Additionally, through medication management, quadruple aims for mental healthcare were included such as improved care, reduced costs, patient experience, and provider well-being.

This review largely aligned with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), which aims to improve the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. However, there were slight deviations, such as not specifying effect measures because of the heterogeneity of the studies included and lack of certainty or confidence assessment except through a 7.5% rereview process. Although a rereview of all the articles would be ideal for verification, the authors only found a small number of articles either incorrectly included or excluded based on the second review.

Figure 1 follows the PRISMA template flow diagram detailing the identification of studies. The evidence identified and included in this report was limited to PubMed and may be considered too restrictive. While excluding non-PubMed studies is a limitation, an analysis showed that 90% (57/63) of the studies identified in the previous AAPP literature review4  are cataloged in PubMed, and 4 more were from the backfiles of journals that are now indexed. Additional studies may have been found through backward citation searching; however, this was not performed. Title, abstract, or full-text review were all used to exclude articles, but the proportion of articles excluded from each type of review was not quantified. An additional review of the excluded articles performed by a different reviewer on 7.5% of the articles resulted in the inclusion of 1.6% of those previously excluded articles. A total of 20 articles (0.5%) were excluded on the basis of inability to access the full text, which could be seen as a limitation. Reviewers made a reasonable attempt to obtain the full text of each article before marking it for exclusion.

Many of the studies (39, 19.3%) identified in this report were focused on tobacco cessation. This finding could pose a potential bias in the body of evidence as it may not be the most reflective of psychiatric pharmacy clinical practice. None of the tobacco cessation articles specified that a BCPP performed the intervention in the study design. A prior AAPP survey reviewing the current practice of psychiatric pharmacists in the United States17  found that the psychiatric conditions most commonly managed by BCPPs were depressive disorders, followed by anxiety disorders, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia, which was not representative of the included articles. While some studies included details, such as pharmacist type, level of experience, or years of training, sufficient detail was not reported in 82.2% of the included studies, which may have offered more opportunities for critical appraisal. Because the body of evidence spanned 7 decades, the results in this report are limited by a lack of context, given how health systems and credentials for psychiatric pharmacists have evolved over time. Many excluded studies focused solely on adherence and economic outcomes, both of which are imperfect extrapolations of patient outcomes. Thus, focusing more on patient-level outcomes in such studies will be more compelling.

Despite these limitations, most outcomes in the articles included showed positive results. This may be a reflection of positive publication bias. Of the studies included, no trends were seen among those with negative outcomes. While the article selection process was not limited by year, the number of results since 1996 dramatically increased, potentially corresponding with the standardization of psychiatric pharmacy residencies with the goal of improving the quality of care provided by psychiatric pharmacists and the creation of the BCPP certification.51  As the number of BCPPs continues to grow, perhaps it would follow that the positive contributions toward patient care will expand as well. While the focus of the individual studies and the variety of outcomes found is problematic for aggregation, it nevertheless demonstrates the flexibility and wide scope of the BCPP role in patient care.

Only 36 (17.8%) articles reported sufficient detail related to study design, pharmacist training, and collaborators; only 20 of those articles had a duration of 1 year or longer. Also, the practice settings observed in the included articles do not reflect those observed by a prior AAPP survey.17  Almost half of the respondents in that study practiced in a hospital inpatient setting (47.6%), while some respondents worked in both hospital inpatient and outpatient settings (13.8%). In comparison, only 17.8% of the included articles in this review were based in inpatient settings. Most of the included articles involved a community setting, which was not specifically mentioned as a BCPP practice site in the prior AAPP survey.17  Ultimately, the benefit BCPPs bring to the healthcare team is useful knowledge. However, insufficient details about the pharmacists, such as residency or fellowship training and years of experience, were provided in the included articles. In some cases, the articles included were published before the establishment of BCPP.

Patient outcome data would be more impactful if derived from randomized controlled trials; however, with the majority of psychiatric pharmacists focusing on direct patient care, time and funding dedicated to randomized controlled trials may be limited. While potentially challenging with institutional review boards, more studies involving vulnerable populations (eg, children and adolescents) could further highlight the role of psychiatric pharmacists in medication management in these specific populations. Additionally, standardizing the outcomes, measures, and reported study characteristics is necessary to improve the ability to aggregate results and replicate studies. By reporting standardized data, areas of opportunity for BCPPs can be identified. Expansion in areas such as provider status and reimbursement could be better supported by data clearly outlining quadruple aims like improved care and reduced cost.

Future systematic literature reviews could re-evaluate or expand upon the search terms used. In the current review, articles were required to use the word “pharmacist” in the indexed content, which may have excluded articles that did not reference pharmacists in any indexed content (eg, title, abstract, keywords). Future reviews could consider additional secondary reviews of excluded articles. Finally, while the quadruple aims are a useful framework, articles studying patient experience, healthcare costs, and provider well-being would have been excluded if they did not also address clinical outcomes (ie, improved care). Future reviews could consider inclusion criteria for the other aims.

The existing data illustrate the varied and impactful roles that psychiatric pharmacists play to benefit patient care as part of the interdisciplinary team. The AAPP Systematic Literature Review Committee will continue to monitor new research as it is performed and published.

The authors thank the board of directors of the American Association of Psychiatric Pharmacists for their support of this project. They also thank Joshua Holland, PharmD, BCPP, for his contribution to the literature evaluation.

1. 
National Institute of Mental Health [Internet]
.
Bethesda: US Department of Health and Human Services
[updated 2023 Mar; cited 2022 Sept 27]. Mental Health [about 10 screens]. Available from
: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/mental-illness
2. 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]
.
Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services
[updated 2023 Mar 8; cited 2022 Sept 27]. Data and Statistics on Children’s Mental Health [about 9 screens]. Available from
: https://www.cdc.gov/childrensmentalhealth/data.html
3. 
SAMHSA [Internet]
.
Rockville: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
[updated 2022; cited 2022 Sept 27]. National Mental Health Services Survey [about 2 screens]. Available from
: https://www.samhsa.gov/data/quick-statistics-results?qs_type=nmhss&state=United%20States&year=2020
4. 
Werremeyer
A
,
Bostwick
J
,
Cobb
C
,
Moore
TD
,
Park
SH
,
Price
C
, et al
Impact of pharmacists on outcomes for patients with psychiatric or neurologic disorders
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2020
;
10
(6)
:
358
80
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
5. 
Baluch
WM.
Pharmacists’ role in a smoking-cessation program at a health maintenance organization
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
1995
;
52
(3)
:
287
93
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
6. 
Jones
TE
,
Crocker
H
,
Ruffin
RE.
Smoking habits and cessation programme in an Australian teaching hospital
.
Aust N Z J Med
.
1998
;
28
(4)
:
446
52
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
7. 
Zillich
AJ
,
Ryan
M
,
Adams
A
,
Yeager
B
,
Farris
K.
Effectiveness of a pharmacist‐based smoking‐cessation program and its impact on quality of life
.
Pharmacotherapy
.
2002
;
22
(6)
:
759
65
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
8. 
Smith
MD
,
MeGhan
WF
,
Lauger
G.
Pharmacist counseling and outcomes of smoking cessation
.
Am Pharm
.
1995
;
35
(8)
:
20
9
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
9. 
Calleja
MA
,
Perez
S
,
Martinez-Martinez
F.
Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation
.
Patient Prefer Adherence
.
2015
;
9
:
209
15
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
10. 
Bouchet-Benezech
B
,
Champanet
B
,
Rouzaud
P.
Smoking cessation at the pharmacy: feasibility and benefits based on a French observational study with six-month follow-up
.
Subst Abuse Rehabil
.
2018
;
9
:
31
42
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
11. 
Canales
PL
,
Dorson
PG
,
Crismon
ML.
Outcomes assessment of clinical pharmacy services in a psychiatric inpatient setting
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
2001
;
58
(14)
:
1309
16
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
12. 
Mohd-Sidik
S
,
Akhtari-Zavare
M
,
Periasamy
U
,
Rampal
L
,
Fadhilah
SI
,
Mahmud
R.
Effectiveness of chemotherapy counselling on self-esteem and psychological affects among cancer patients in Malaysia: randomized controlled trial
.
Patient Educ Couns
.
2018
;
101
(5)
:
862
71
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
13. 
Finley
PR
,
Rens
HR
,
Pont
JT
,
Gess
SL
,
Louie
C
,
Bull
SA
, et al
Impact of a collaborative pharmacy practice model on the treatment of depression in primary care
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
2002
;
59
(16)
:
1518
26
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
14. 
Finley
PR
,
Rens
HR
,
Pont
JT
,
Gess
SL
,
Louie
C
,
Bull
SA
, et al
Impact of a collaborative care model on depression in a primary care setting: a randomized controlled trial
.
Pharmacotherapy
.
2003
;
23
(9)
:
1175
85
. .
15. 
Rubio-Valera
M
,
Pujol
MM
,
Fernández
A
,
Peñarrubia-María
MT
,
Travé
P
,
del Hoyo
YL
, et al
Evaluation of a pharmacist intervention on patients initiating pharmacological treatment for depression: a randomized controlled superiority trial
.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
.
2013
;
23
(9)
:
1057
66
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
16. 
Aljumah
K
,
Hassali
MA.
Impact of pharmacist intervention on adherence and measurable patient outcomes among depressed patients: a randomised controlled study
.
BMC Psychiatry
.
2015
;
15
:
219
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. Central PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
17. 
Silvia
RJ
,
Lee
KC
,
Bostwick
JR
,
Cobb
CD
,
Goldstone
LW
,
Moore
TD
, et al
Assessment of the current practice of psychiatric pharmacists in the United States
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2020
;
10
(6)
:
346
53
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
18. 
Dorevitch
A
,
Perl
E.
The impact of clinical pharmacy intervention in a psychiatric hospital
.
J Clin Pharm Ther
.
1996
;
21
(1)
:
45
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
19. 
Kennedy
DT
,
Giles
JT
,
Chang
ZG
,
Small
RE
,
Edwards
JH.
Results of a smoking cessation clinic in community pharmacy practice
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash)
.
2002
;
42
(1)
:
51
6
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
20. 
Doescher
M
,
Whinston
M
,
Goo
A
,
Cummings
D
,
Huntington
J
,
Saver
B.
Pilot study of enhanced tobacco-cessation services coverage for low-income smokers
.
Nicotine Tob Res
.
2002
;
4
(1)
:
19
24
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
21. 
Khan
N
,
Anderson
JR
,
Du
J
,
Tinker
D
,
Bachyrycz
AM
,
Namdar
R.
Smoking cessation and its predictors: results from a community-based pharmacy tobacco cessation program in New Mexico
.
Ann Pharmacother
.
2012
;
46
(9)
:
1198
204
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
22. 
Thomas
D
,
Abramson
MJ
,
Bonevski
B
,
Taylor
S
,
Poole
SG
,
Paul
E
, et al
Integrating smoking cessation into routine care in hospitals—a randomized controlled trial
.
Addiction
.
2016
;
111
(4)
:
714
23
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
23. 
Watanabe
F
,
Shinohara
K
,
Dobashi
A
,
Amagai
K
,
Hara
K
,
Kurata
K
, et al
Assessment of assistance in smoking cessation therapy by pharmacies in collaboration with medical institutions—implementation of a collaborative drug therapy management protocol based on a written agreement between physicians and pharmacists
.
Yakugaku Zasshi
.
2016
;
136
(9)
:
1243
54
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
24. 
Papastergiou
J
,
Quilty
LC
,
Li
W
,
Thiruchselvam
T
,
Jain
E
,
Gove
P
, et al
Pharmacogenomics guided versus standard antidepressant treatment in a community pharmacy setting: a randomized controlled trial
.
Clin Transl Sci
.
2021
;
14
(4)
:
1359
68
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
25. 
Al-Saffar
N
,
Abdulkareem
A
,
Abdulhakeem
A
,
Salah
A-Q
,
Heba
M.
Depressed patients’ preferences for education about medications by pharmacists in Kuwait
.
Patient Educ Couns
.
2008
;
72
(1)
:
94
101
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
26. 
Alves
L
,
Carlos
J
,
Rosana
M
,
Carneiro
C
,
Alberto
L
,
Regina
A.
Assessment of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy follow-up in patients treated for depression
.
J Manag Care Pharm
.
2013
;
19
(3)
:
218
27
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
27. 
Bultman
DC
,
Svarstad
BL.
Effects of pharmacist monitoring on patient satisfaction with antidepressant medication therapy
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash)
.
2002
;
42
(1)
:
36
43
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
28. 
Rickles
NM
,
Svarstad
BL
,
Statz-Paynter
JL
,
Taylor
LV
,
Kobak
KA.
Pharmacist telemonitoring of antidepressant use: effects on pharmacist–patient collaboration
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2005
;
45
(3)
:
344
53
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
29. 
Poon
LH
,
Lee
AJ
,
Chiao
TB
,
Kang
GA
,
Heath
S
,
Glass
GA.
Pharmacist’s role in a Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders clinic
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
2012
;
69
(6)
:
518
20
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
30. 
Swain
LD.
A Pharmacist’s contribution to an ambulatory neurology clinic
.
Consult Pharm
.
2012
;
27
(1)
:
49
57
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
31. 
Yamamura
K
,
Suzuki
Y
,
Umegaki
H
,
Shigeno
K
,
Matsushita
R
,
Sai
Y
, et al
Pharmacist-based Donepezil Outpatient Consultation Service to improve medication persistence
.
Patient Prefer Adherence
.
2012
;
6
:
605
11
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
32. 
Chung
B
,
Dopheide
JA
,
Gregerson
P.
Psychiatric pharmacist and primary care collaboration at a skid-row safety-net clinic
.
J Natl Med Assoc
.
2011
;
103
(7)
:
567
75
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
33. 
Cobb
CD.
Optimizing medication use with a pharmacist-provided comprehensive medication management service for patients with psychiatric disorders
.
Pharmacotherapy
.
2014
;
34
(12)
:
1336
40
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
34. 
McMillan
SS
,
Kelly
F
,
Hattingh
HL
,
Fowler
JL
,
Mihala
G
,
Wheeler
AJ.
The impact of a person-centred community pharmacy mental health medication support service on consumer outcomes
.
J Ment Health
.
2018
;
27
(2)
:
164
73
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
35. 
Rojas‐Fernandez
CH
,
Eng
M
,
Allie
ND.
Pharmacologic management by clinical pharmacists of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in nursing home residents: results from a pilot study
.
Pharmacotherapy
.
2003
;
23
(2)
:
217
21
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
36. 
Stuijt
C
,
Karapinar-Çarkit
F
,
van den Bemt
B
,
van Laar
T.
Effect of pharmacist-led interventions on (non)motor symptoms, medication-related problems, and quality of life in Parkinson disease patients: a pilot study
.
Clin Neuropharmacol
.
2018
;
41
(1)
:
14
9
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
37. 
Ellenor
GL
,
Frisk
PA.
Pharmacist impact on drug use in an institution for the mentally retarded
.
Am J Hosp Pharm
.
1977
;
34
(6)
:
604
8
. PMID:
[PubMed]
.
38. 
Rosen
CE
,
Holmes
S.
Pharmacist’s impact on chronic psychiatric outpatients in community mental health
.
Am J Hosp Pharm
.
1978
;
35
(6)
:
704
8
. PMID:
[PubMed]
.
39. 
Rosen
CE
,
Copp
WM
,
Holmes
S.
Effectiveness of a specially trained pharmacist in a rural community mental health center
.
Public Health Rep
.
1978
;
93
(5)
:
464
7
.
40. 
Bond
CA
,
Salinger
RJ.
Fluphenazine outpatient clinics: a pharmacist’s role
.
J Clin Psychiatry
.
1979
;
40
(12)
:
501
3
. PMID:
[PubMed]
.
41. 
Gray
DR
,
Namikas
EA
,
Sax
MJ
,
Brinkman
J
,
Cheung
A
,
Gordon
M
, et al
Clinical pharmacists as allied health care providers to psychiatric patients
.
Contemp Pharm Pract
.
1979
;
2
(3)
:
108
16
. PMID:
[PubMed]
.
42. 
Cardoni
AA
,
Gunning
J.
Psychiatric pharmacy in a partial hospital program
.
Hosp Pharm
.
1983
;
18
(10)
:
543
9
,
555
. PMID:
[PubMed]
.
43. 
Steineck
KJ
,
Skoglund
AK
,
Carlson
MK
,
Gupta
S.
Evaluation of a pharmacist-managed methadone taper*
.
Pediatr Crit Care Med
.
2014
;
15
(3)
:
206
10
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
44. 
Paquin
AM
,
Salow
M
,
Rudolph
JL.
pharmacist calls to older adults with cognitive difficulties after discharge in a tertiary veterans administration medical center: a quality improvement program
.
J Am Geriatrics Soc
.
2015
;
63
(3)
:
571
7
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
45. 
DeCaporale-Ryan
LN
,
Ahmed-Sarwar
N
,
Upham
R
,
Mahler
K
,
Lashway
K.
Reducing hospital readmission through team-based primary care: a 7-week pilot study integrating behavioral health and pharmacy
.
Fam Syst Health
.
2017
;
35
(2)
:
217
26
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
46. 
Gustafsson
M
,
Sjölander
M
,
Pfister
B
,
Jonsson
J
,
Schneede
J
,
Lövheim
H.
Pharmacist participation in hospital ward teams and hospital readmission rates among people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial
.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol
.
2017
;
73
(7)
:
827
35
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
47. 
Louzon
P
,
Jennings
H
,
Ali
M
,
Kraisinger
M.
Impact of pharmacist management of pain, agitation, and delirium in the intensive care unit through participation in multidisciplinary bundle rounds
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
2017
;
74
(4)
:
253
62
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
48. 
Salazar-Ospina
A
,
Amariles
P
,
Hincapié-García
JA
,
González-Avendaño
S
,
Benjumea
DM
,
Faus
MJ
, et al
Effectiveness of the Dader method for pharmaceutical care on patients with bipolar I disorder: results from the EMDADER-TAB study
.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm
.
2017
;
23
(1)
:
74
84
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
49. 
Bättig
VAD
,
Roll
SC
,
Hahn
M.
Pharmacogenetic testing in depressed patients and interdisciplinary exchange between a pharmacist and psychiatrists results in reduced hospitalization times
.
Pharmacopsychiatry
.
2020
;
53
(4)
:
185
92
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
50. 
Dorevitch
A
,
Aronzon
R
,
Zilberman
L.
Medication maintenance of chronic schizophrenic out-patients by a psychiatric clinical pharmacist: 10-year follow-up study
.
J Clin Pharm Ther
.
1993
;
18
(3)
:
183
6
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
51. 
Stoner
SC
,
Ott
CA
,
DiPaula
BA.
Psychiatric pharmacy residency training*
.
Am J Pharm Educ
.
2010
;
74
(9)
:
163
. .
52. 
Suehs
BT
,
Mican
LM
,
Campbell
AH.
Retrospective evaluation of an inpatient psychiatric pharmacist consultation service
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2011
;
51
(5)
:
599
604
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
53. 
Valenstein
M
,
Kavanagh
J
,
Lee
T
,
Reilly
P
,
Dalack
GW
,
Grabowski
J
, et al
Using a pharmacy-based intervention to improve antipsychotic adherence among patients with serious mental illness
.
Schizophr Bull
.
2011
;
37
(4)
:
727
36
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
54. 
Wang
I
,
Dopheide
JA
,
Gregerson
P.
Role of a psychiatric pharmacist in a Los Angeles “Skid-Row” safety-net clinic
.
J Urban Health
.
2011
;
88
(4)
:
718
23
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
55. 
Furbish
SML
,
Kroehl
ME
,
Loeb
DF
,
Lam
HM
,
Lewis
CL
,
Nelson
J
, et al
A pharmacist-physician collaboration to optimize benzodiazepine use for anxiety and sleep symptom control in primary care
.
J Pharm Pract
.
2017
;
30
(4)
:
425
33
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
56. 
Harms
M
,
Haas
M
,
Larew
J
,
DeJongh
B.
Impact of a mental health clinical pharmacist on a primary care mental health integration team
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2017
;
7
(3)
:
101
5
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
57. 
Herbert
C
,
Winkler
H.
Impact of a clinical pharmacist-managed clinic in primary care mental health integration at a Veterans Affairs health system
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2018
;
8
(3)
:
105
9
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
58. 
Lindell
VA
,
Stencel
NL
,
Ives
RC
,
Ward
KM
,
Fluent
T
,
Choe
HM
, et al
A pilot evaluating clinical pharmacy services in an ambulatory psychiatry setting
.
Psychopharmacol Bull
.
2018
;
48
(2)
:
18
28
. PMID:
[PubMed]
.
59. 
Buist
E
,
McLelland
R
,
Rushworth
GF
,
Stewart
D
,
Gibson-Smith
K
,
MacLure
A
, et al
An evaluation of mental health clinical pharmacist independent prescribers within general practice in remote and rural Scotland
.
Int J Clin Pharm
.
2019
;
41
(5)
:
1138
42
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
60. 
Gonzalvo
JD
,
Hamm
JA
,
Shan
M.
A pharmacist-managed cardiovascular risk-reduction clinic for individuals experiencing serious mental illness
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2019
;
59
(5)
:
698
703
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
61. 
Perepelkin
J
,
Antunes
K
,
Boechler
L
,
Remillard
AJ
,
Mildenberger
L.
Providing mindfulness meditation for patients with depression and anxiety in a community pharmacy: a pilot study
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2019
;
59
(2)
:
258
64
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
62. 
AbuNaba’a
Y
,
Basheti
IA.
Assessing the impact of medication management review service for females diagnosed with depression and anxiety: a randomized control trial
.
J Eval Clin Pract
.
2020
;
26
(5)
:
1478
89
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
63. 
Alkoudsi
KT
,
Basheti
IA.
Prevalence of anxiety and depression among women with polycystic ovary syndrome living in war versus non-war zone countries: a randomized controlled trial assessing a pharmacist intervention
.
Res Soc Administrative Pharm
.
2020
;
16
(5)
:
689
98
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
64. 
Samaksha
PB
,
Kishor
M
,
Ramesh
M.
A novel study on clinical pharmacist and psychiatrist collaborative pharmacotherapy management services among elderly population with psychiatric illness
.
Indian J Psychiatry
.
2022
;
64
(1)
:
20
4
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
65. 
Johnson
MR
,
Nash
DR
,
Laird
MR
,
Kiley
RC
,
Martinez
MA.
Development and implementation of a pharmacist-managed, neonatal and pediatric, opioid-weaning protocol
.
J Pediatric Pharmacol Ther
.
2014
;
19
(3)
:
165
73
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
66. 
Celestin
G
,
Balding
M
,
Para
JL
,
Utley
A
,
Shaddix
BP.
A preliminary assessment of the effects of pharmacist-driven methadone stewardship for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome at a tertiary children’s hospital
.
J Pediatric Pharmacol Ther
.
2022
;
27
(8)
:
720
4
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
67. 
Casey
T
,
Johnson
C
,
Love
D.
Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder clinic: An interprofessional collaboration
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2020
;
60
(5)
:
S113
7
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
68. 
Fortney
JC
,
Pyne
JM
,
Kimbrell
TA
,
Hudson
TJ
,
Robinson
DE
,
Schneider
R
, et al
Telemedicine-based collaborative care for posttraumatic stress disorder
.
JAMA Psychiatry
.
2015
;
72
(1)
:
58
67
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
69. 
Mishra
A
,
Krishna
GS
,
Alla
S
,
Kurian
TD
,
Kurian
J
,
Ramesh
M
, et al
Impact of pharmacist-psychiatrist collaborative patient education on medication adherence and quality of life (QOL) of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) patients
.
Front Pharmacol
.
2017
;
8
:
722
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
70. 
Salazar-Ospina
A
,
Amariles
P
,
Hincapié-García
JA
,
González-Avendaño
S.
Long-term impact of pharmacist intervention in patients with bipolar disorder: extended follow-up to the EMDADER-TAB study
.
Heliyon
.
2020
;
6
(2)
:
e03333
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
71. 
Sakakibara
M
,
Igarashi
A
,
Takase
Y
,
Kamei
H
,
Nabeshima
T.
Effects of prescription drug reduction on quality of life in community-dwelling patients with dementia
.
J Pharm Pharm Sci
.
2015
;
18
(5)
:
705
12
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
72. 
Gustafsson
M
,
Sjölander
M
,
Pfister
B
,
Schneede
J
,
Lövheim
H.
Effects of pharmacists’ interventions on inappropriate drug use and drug-related readmissions in people with dementia—a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial
.
Pharmacy
.
2018
;
6
(1)
:
7
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
73. 
Bravo-José
P
,
Sáez-Lleó
CI
,
Peris-Martí
JF.
Deprescribing antipsychotics in long term care patients with dementia
.
Farm Hosp
.
2019
;
43
(4)
:
140
5
. .
74. 
Chen
Z
,
Wang
L
,
Chen
K
,
Mi
Q
,
Zu
X
,
Xu
Q
, et al
The effects of a multi-disciplinary team on sleep quality assessment in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease patients with sleep disorders
.
Scott Med J
.
2021
;
66
(3)
:
134
41
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
75. 
Elbeddini
A
,
Tayefehchamani
Y
,
Yilmaz
Z
,
Villegas
JJ
,
Zhang
EY.
Evaluation of a community-based memory clinic in collaboration with local hospitals to support patients with memory decline
.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci
.
2022
;
17
(2)
:
220
34
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
76. 
Kable
A
,
Hullick
C
,
Palazzi
K
,
Oldmeadow
C
,
Searles
A
,
Ling
R
, et al
Evaluation of a safe medication strategy intervention for people with dementia with an unplanned admission: results from the Safe Medication Strategy Dementia Study
.
Australas J Ageing
.
2021
;
40
(4)
:
356
65
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
77. 
Huang
C‐Y
,
Hu
C‐J
,
Huang
L‐K
,
Chang
EH.
Effects of caregiver counselling on medication persistence and adherence in patients with dementia at a pharmacist‐managed clinic: a pilot study
.
Clin Pharm Ther
.
2022
;
47
(12)
:
2074
82
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
78. 
Summers
B
,
Summers
RS
,
Rom
S.
The effect of a specialist clinic with pharmacist involvement on the management of epilepsy in paediatric patients
.
J Clin Pharm Ther
.
1986
;
11
(3)
:
207
14
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
79. 
McFadyen
ML
,
Miller
R
,
Juta
M
,
Hodgson
V.
The relevance of a First-World therapeutic drug monitoring service to the treatment of epilepsy in third-world conditions
.
S Afr Med J
.
1990
;
78
(10)
:
587
90
.
80. 
Eshiet
UI
,
Okonta
JM
,
Ukwe
CV.
Impact of a pharmacist-led education and counseling interventions on quality of life in epilepsy: a randomized controlled trial
.
Epilepsy Res
.
2021
;
174
:
106648
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
81. 
Marawar
R
,
Faraj
M
,
Lucas
K
,
Burns
CV
,
Garwood
CL.
Implementation of an older adult epilepsy clinic utilizing pharmacist services
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2021
;
61
(6)
:
e93
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
82. 
Pham
HT
,
Tran
M-H
,
Nguyen
NQ
,
Tan Vo
V
,
Tran
MH.
Role of clinical pharmacists in epilepsy management at a general hospital in Vietnam: a before-and-after study
.
J Pharm Policy Pract
.
2021
;
14
(1)
:
109
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
83. 
Berchou
RC.
Effect of a consultant pharmacist on medication use in an institution for the mentally retarded
.
Am J Hosp Pharm
.
1982
;
39
(10)
:
1671
4
. PMID:
[PubMed]
.
84. 
McKee
JR.
Clinical pharmacy services in an intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded
.
Hosp Pharm
.
1994
;
29
(3)
:
228
230
,
233-234, 237
.
85. 
Thayer
N
,
White
S
,
Islam
J
,
Jones
W
,
Kenzie
S
,
Kullu
R.
Reducing risks associated with medicines and lifestyle in a residential care population with intellectual disabilities: evaluation of a pharmacy review initiative in England
.
BMJ Open
.
2021
;
11
(8)
:
e046630
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
86. 
Boudreau
DM
,
Capoccia
KL
,
Sullivan
SD
,
Blough
DK
,
Ellsworth
AJ
,
Clark
DL
, et al
Collaborative care model to improve outcomes in major depression
.
Ann Pharmacother
.
2002
;
36
(4)
:
585
91
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
87. 
Bungay
KM
,
Adler
DA
,
Rogers
WH
,
McCoy
C
,
Kaszuba
M
,
Supran
S
, et al
Description of a clinical pharmacist intervention administered to primary care patients with depression
.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
.
2004
;
26
(3)
:
210
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
88. 
Capoccia
KL
,
Boudreau
DM
,
Blough
DK
,
Ellsworth
AJ
,
Clark
DR
,
Stevens
NG
, et al
Randomized trial of pharmacist interventions to improve depression care and outcomes in primary care
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
2004
;
61
(4)
:
364
72
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
89. 
Pyne
JM
,
Fortney
JC
,
Tripathi
SP
,
Maciejewski
ML
,
Edlund
MJ
,
Williams
DK.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of a rural telemedicine collaborative care intervention for depression
.
Arch Gen Psychiatry
.
2010
;
67
(8)
:
812
21
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
90. 
Fortney
JC
,
Pyne
JM
,
Mouden
SB
,
Mittal
D
,
Hudson
TJ
,
Schroeder
GW
, et al
Practice-based versus telemedicine-based collaborative care for depression in rural federally qualified health centers: a pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness trial
.
Am J Psychiatry
.
2013
;
170
(4)
:
414
25
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
91. 
Moore
JM
,
Shartle
D
,
Faudskar
L
,
Matlin
OS
,
Brennan
TA.
Impact of a patient-centered pharmacy program and intervention in a high-risk group
.
J Manag Care Pharm
.
2013
;
19
(3)
:
228
36
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
92. 
Silvia
R
,
Plum
M
,
Dufresne
R.
Efficiencies and outcomes of depression treatment by a psychiatric pharmacist in a primary care clinic compared with treatment within a behavioral health clinic
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2020
;
60
(5)
:
S98
106
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
93. 
Marasine
NR
,
Sankhi
S
,
Lamichhane
R.
Impact of pharmacist intervention on medication adherence and patient-reported outcomes among depressed patients in a private psychiatric hospital of Nepal: a randomised controlled trial
.
Hosp Pharm
.
2022
;
57
(1)
:
26
31
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
94. 
Schröder
S
,
Martus
P
,
Odin
P
,
Schaefer
M.
Impact of community pharmaceutical care on patient health and quality of drug treatment in Parkinson’s disease
.
Int J Clin Pharm
.
2012
;
34
(5)
:
746
56
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
95. 
Oonk
NGM
,
Dorresteijn
LDA
,
van den Berg
AD
,
van der Palen
J
,
Movig
KLL
,
Nijmeijer
HW
, et al
Cost-utility analysis of a structured medication review compared to usual care in Parkinson’s disease
.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol
.
2023
;
79
(2)
:
289
97
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
96. 
Hoffmann
RP
,
Moore
WE
,
O’Dea
LF.
Medication problems confronted by the schizophrenic outpatient
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (1961)
.
1974
;
14
(5)
:
252
6
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
97. 
Sathienluckana
T
,
Unaharassamee
W
,
Suthisisang
C
,
Suanchang
O
,
Suansanae
T.
Anticholinergic discontinuation and cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia: a pharmacist-physician collaboration in the outpatient department
.
Integr Pharm Res Pract
.
2018
;
7
:
161
71
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
98. 
Spann
G
,
Austin
L
,
King
E.
Pharmacists in clozapine clinics improving physical health monitoring
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2022
;
12
(3)
:
193
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
99. 
Lui
E
,
Wintemute
K
,
Muraca
M
,
Truong
C
,
Ha
R
,
Choe
AKB
, et al
Pharmacist-led sedative-hypnotic deprescribing in team-based primary care practice
.
Can Pharm J (Ott)
.
2021
;
154
(4)
:
278
84
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
100. 
Masse
M
,
Henry
H
,
Cuvelier
E
,
Pinçon
C
,
Pavy
M
,
Beeuwsaert
A
, et al
Sleep medication in older adults: identifying the need for support by a community pharmacist
.
Healthcare (Basel)
.
2022
;
10
(1)
:
147
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
101. 
Hutchinson
SJ
,
Taylor
A
,
Gruer
L
,
Barr
C
,
Mills
C
,
Elliott
L.
One‐year follow‐up of opiate injectors treated with oral methadone in a GP‐centred programme
.
Addiction
.
2000
;
95
(7)
:
1055
68
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
102. 
Jaffray
M
,
Matheson
C
,
Bond
CM
,
Lee
AJ
,
McLernon
DJ
,
Johnstone
A
, et al
Does training in motivational interviewing for community pharmacists improve outcomes for methadone patients? A cluster randomised controlled trial
.
Int J Pharm Pract
.
2013
;
22
(1)
:
4
12
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
103. 
Suzuki
J
,
Matthews
ML
,
Brick
D
,
Nguyen
M-T
,
Wasan
AD
,
Jamison
RN
, et al
Implementation of a collaborative care management program with buprenorphine in primary care: a comparison between opioid-dependent patients and patients with chronic pain using opioids nonmedically
.
J Opioid Manag
.
2014
;
10
(3)
:
159
68
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
104. 
Smith
A
,
Hansen
J
,
Colvard
M.
Impact of a pharmacist-led substance use disorder transitions of care clinic on postdischarge medication treatment retention
.
J Subst Abus Treat
.
2021
;
130
(1)
:
108440
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
105. 
Yasin
H
,
Bulatova
N
,
Wazaify
M.
Pharmaceutical care in the treatment of substance use disorders in Jordan: a randomized controlled trial
.
Subst Use Misuse
.
2021
;
56
(12)
:
1846
59
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
106. 
Binswanger
IA
,
Rinehart
D
,
Mueller
SR
,
Narwaney
KJ
,
Stowell
M
,
Wagner
N
, et al
Naloxone co-dispensing with opioids: a cluster randomized pragmatic trial
.
J Gen Intern Med
.
2022
;
37
(11)
:
2624
33
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
107. 
Ehrhard
K
,
Colvard
M
,
Brabson
J.
Addition of a clinical pharmacist practitioner to an inpatient addiction triage team and related medication outcomes
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2022
;
12
(4)
:
219
24
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
108. 
Skoy
E
,
Frenzel
O
,
Eukel
H
,
Lothspeich
E
,
Steig
J
,
Strand
M
, et al
Evaluation of a program to screen patients in community pharmacies for opioid misuse and accidental overdose
.
Prev Chronic Dis
.
2022
;
19
:
E41
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
109. 
Sze
J
,
Chan
T
,
Dalpoas
S
,
Kiruthi
C
,
Harris
CM
,
Gundareddy
V
, et al
Implementation of a pharmacist-led, multidisciplinary naloxone patient education program at an academic medical center
.
J Pharm Pract
.
2023
;
36
(5)
:
1201
10
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
110. 
Maguire
TA
,
McElnay
JC
,
Drummond
A.
A randomized controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention based in community pharmacies
.
Addiction
.
2001
;
96
(2)
:
325
31
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
111. 
Bauld
L
,
Chesterman
J
,
Ferguson
J
,
Judge
K.
A comparison of the effectiveness of group‐based and pharmacy‐led smoking cessation treatment in Glasgow
.
Addiction
.
2009
;
104
(2)
:
308
16
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
112. 
Dent
LA
,
Harris
KJ
,
Noonan
CW.
Randomized trial assessing the effectiveness of a pharmacist-delivered program for smoking cessation
.
Ann Pharmacother
.
2009
;
43
(2)
:
194
201
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
113. 
Capoccia
KL
,
Boudreau
DM
,
Blough
DK
,
Ellsworth
AJ
,
Clark
DR
,
Stevens
NG
, et al
Randomized trial of pharmacist interventions to improve depression care and outcomes in primary care
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
2004
;
61
(4)
:
364
72
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
114. 
Bauld
L
,
Boyd
KA
,
Briggs
AH
,
Chesterman
J
,
Ferguson
J
,
Judge
K
, et al
One-year outcomes and a cost-effectiveness analysis for smokers accessing group-based and pharmacy-led cessation services
.
Nicotine Tob Res
.
2011
;
13
(2)
:
135
45
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
115. 
Costello
MJ
,
Sproule
B
,
Victor
JC
,
Leatherdale
ST
,
Zawertailo
L
,
Selby
P.
Effectiveness of pharmacist counseling combined with nicotine replacement therapy: a pragmatic randomized trial with 6,987 smokers
.
Cancer Causes Control
.
2011
;
22
(2)
:
167
80
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
116. 
Mardle
T
,
Merrett
S
,
Wright
J
,
Percival
F
,
Lockhart
I.
Real world evaluation of three models of NHS smoking cessation service in England
.
BMC Res Notes
.
2012
;
5
(1)
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
117. 
Davis
TD
,
Deen
T
,
Bryant-Bedell
K
,
Tate
V
,
Fortney
J.
Does minority racial-ethnic status moderate outcomes of collaborative care for depression?
Psychiatr Serv
.
2011
;
62
(11)
:
1282
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
118. 
Shen
X
,
Bachyrycz
A
,
Anderson
JR
,
Tinker
D
,
Raisch
DW.
Quitting patterns and predictors of success among participants in a tobacco cessation program provided by pharmacists in New Mexico
.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm
.
2014
;
20
(6)
:
579
87
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
119. 
Augustine
JM
,
Taylor
AM
,
Pelger
M
,
Schiefer
D
,
Warholak
TL.
Smoking quit rates among patients receiving pharmacist-provided pharmacotherapy and telephonic smoking cessation counseling
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2016
;
56
(2)
:
129
36
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
120. 
Fai
SC
,
Yen
GK
,
Malik
N.
Quit rates at 6 months in a pharmacist-led smoking cessation service in Malaysia
.
Can Pharm J
.
2016
;
149
(5)
:
303
12
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
121. 
Gong
J
,
Baker
CL
,
Zou
KH
,
Bruno
M
,
Jumadilova
Z
,
Lawrence
D
, et al
A pragmatic randomized trial comparing telephone-based enhanced pharmacy care and usual care to support smoking cessation
.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm
.
2016
;
22
(12)
:
1417
25
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
122. 
El Hajj
MS
,
Kheir
N
,
Al Mulla
AM
,
Shami
R
,
Fanous
N
,
Mahfoud
ZR.
Effectiveness of a pharmacist-delivered smoking cessation program in the state of Qatar: a randomized controlled trial
.
BMC Public Health
.
2017
;
17
(1)
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
123. 
Forinash
AB
,
Yancey
A
,
Chamness
D
,
Koerner
J
,
Inteso
C
,
Miller
C
, et al
Smoking cessation following text message intervention in pregnant women
.
Ann Pharmacother
.
2018
;
52
(11)
:
1109
16
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
124. 
Li
VW
,
Lam
J
,
Heise
P
,
Reid
RD
,
Mullen
KA.
Implementation of a pharmacist-led inpatient tobacco cessation intervention in a rehabilitation hospital: a before-and-after pilot study
.
Can J Hosp Pharm
.
2018
;
71
(3)
:
180
6
.
125. 
Litke
J
,
Spoutz
L
,
Ahlstrom
D
,
Perdew
C
,
Llamas
W
,
Erickson
K.
Impact of the clinical pharmacy specialist in telehealth primary care
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
2018
;
75
(13)
:
982
6
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
126. 
Cheng
HM
,
Liu
WC
,
Chua
G
,
Liew
CF
,
Li
W
,
Choo
W
, et al
Impact of a pharmacy-led smoking cessation clinic in a dermatology centre
.
Singapore Med J
.
2019
;
60
(1)
:
31
3
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
127. 
Beaupre
L
,
Hammal
F
,
Stiegelmar
R
,
Masson
E
,
Finegan
B.
A community-based pharmacist-led smoking cessation program, before elective total joint replacement surgery, markedly enhances smoking cessation rates
.
Tob Induc Dis
.
2020
;
18
:
1
7
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
128. 
Condinho
M
,
Ramalhinho
I
,
Sinogas
C.
Smoking cessation at the community pharmacy: determinants of success from a real-life practice
.
Pharmacy (Basel)
.
2021
;
9
(3)
:
143
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
129. 
Gobarani
RK
,
Zwar
NA
,
Russell
G
,
Abramson
MJ
,
Bonevski
B
,
Holland
AE
, et al
Smoking cessation intervention in Australian general practice: a secondary analysis of a cluster randomised controlled trial
.
Br J Gen Pract
.
2021
;
71
(707)
:
e458-64
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
130. 
Lertsinudom
S
,
Kaewketthong
P
,
Chankaew
T
,
Chinwong
D
,
Chinwong
S.
Smoking cessation services by community pharmacists: real-world practice in Thailand
.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
.
2021
;
18
(22)
:
11890
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
131. 
Onda
M
,
Horiguchi
M
,
Domichi
M
,
Sakane
N.
A pragmatic pilot cluster-randomized study of tobacco screening and smoking cessation program for community pharmacies in Japan: FINE program
.
J Smok Cessat
.
2021
;
2021
:
9983515
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
132. 
Tse
SS
,
Sands
BE
,
Keefer
L
,
Cohen
BL
,
Maser
E
,
Ungaro
RC
, et al
Improved smoking cessation rates in a pharmacist-led program embedded in an inflammatory bowel disease specialty medical home
.
J Pharm Pract
.
2022
;
35
(6)
:
827
35
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
133. 
Asayut
N
,
Olson
PS
,
Kanjanasilp
J
,
Thanarat
P
,
Senkraigul
B
,
Sittisarn
C
, et al
A community pharmacist-led smoking cessation intervention using a smartphone app (PharmQuit): a randomized controlled trial
.
Taheri S. PLoS One
.
2022
;
17
(3)
:
e0265483
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
134. 
Cameron
CR
,
Ewachiw
B
,
Chasler
JE
,
Dalpoas
SE
,
Vázquez
J
,
Burdalski
C.
Assisted versus referred pharmacy smoking interventions for patients with thoracic malignancies or pulmonary nodules
.
Drug Alcohol Depend
.
2022
;
236
(2)
:
109465
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
135. 
Guthrie
AR.
Pharmacist-assisted varenicline tobacco cessation treatment for veterans
.
Fed Pract
.
2022
;
39
(7)
:
304
9
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
136. 
Hartman-Filson
M
,
Chen
J
,
Lee
P
,
Phan
M
,
Apollonio
DE
,
Kroon
L
, et al
A community-based tobacco cessation program for individuals experiencing homelessness
.
Addict Behav
.
2022
;
129
(10)
:
107282
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
137. 
Park
S-K
,
Kang
D-W
,
Lee
E-K.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of smoking cessation interventions with behavioral support: a study based on the benefits of smoking cessation on outcomes (BENESCO) model
.
Nicotine Tob Res
.
2022
;
24
(12)
:
2011
17
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
138. 
Phillips
LCE
,
Nguyen
H
,
Genge
TL
,
Maddigan
WJ.
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an intensive and abbreviated individualized smoking cessation program delivered by pharmacists: a pragmatic, mixed-method, randomized trial
.
Can Pharm J
.
2022
;
155
(6)
:
334
44
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
139. 
Malone
M
,
Alger-Mayer
SA
,
Anderson
DA.
the lifestyle challenge program: a multidisciplinary approach to weight management
.
Ann Pharmacother
.
2005
;
39
(12)
:
2015
20
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
140. 
Taveira
TH
,
Pirraglia
PA
,
Cohen
LB
,
Wu
W‐C.
Efficacy of a pharmacist‐led cardiovascular risk reduction clinic for diabetic patients with and without mental health conditions
.
Prev Cardiol
.
2008
;
11
(4)
:
195
200
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
141. 
Hansen
RA
,
Dusetzina
SB
,
Song
L
,
Gaynes
BN
,
Tu
W
,
Murray
MD.
Depression affects adherence measurement but not the effectiveness of an adherence intervention in heart failure patients
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2009
;
49
(6)
:
760
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
142. 
Hohmann
C
,
Klotz
JM
,
Radziwill
R
,
Jacobs
AH
,
Kissel
T.
Pharmaceutical care for patients with ischemic stroke: improving the patients quality of life
.
Pharm World Sci
.
2009
;
31
(5)
:
550
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
143. 
Hohmann
C
,
Radziwill
R
,
Klotz
JM
,
Jacobs
AH.
Health-related quality of life after ischemic stroke: the impact of pharmaceutical interventions on drug therapy (Pharmaceutical Care Concept)
.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
.
2010
;
8
(1)
:
59
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
144. 
Pyne
JM
,
Fortney
JC
,
Curran
GM
,
Tripathi
S
,
Atkinson
JH
,
Kilbourne
AM
, et al
Effectiveness of collaborative care for depression in human immunodeficiency virus clinics
.
Arch Intern Med
.
2010
;
171
(1)
:
23
31
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
145. 
Taveira
TH
,
Dooley
AG
,
Cohen
LB
,
Khatana
SAM
,
Wu
W-C.
Pharmacist-led group medical appointments for the management of type 2 diabetes with comorbid depression in older adults
.
Ann Pharmacother
.
2011
;
45
(11)
:
1346
55
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
146. 
Carrión
JA
,
Gonzalez-Colominas
E
,
García-Retortillo
M
,
Cañete
N
,
Cirera
I
,
Coll
S
, et al
A multidisciplinary support programme increases the efficiency of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in hepatitis C
.
J Hepatol
.
2013
;
59
(5)
:
926
33
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
147. 
Ummavathy
P
,
Sherina
MS
,
Rampal
L
,
Siti Irma Fadhilah
I.
Outcome of chemotherapy counseling by pharmacists on psychological effects and self esteem among oncology patients in a government hospital in Malaysia
.
Med J Malaysia
.
2015
;
70
(3)
:
131
41
.
148. 
Milkovich
SA
,
Rychel
RL
,
Pascuzzi
KM
, et al
Serious mental illness and its impact on diabetes care in a VA nurse/pharmacist-managed population
.
Fed Pract
.
2017
;
34
(Suppl 8)
:
S32
7
.
149. 
Kanwal
F
,
Pyne
JM
,
Tavakoli-Tabasi
S
,
Nicholson
S
,
Dieckgraefe
B
,
Storay
E
, et al
A randomized trial of off-site collaborative care for depression in chronic hepatitis C virus
.
Health Serv Res
.
2018
;
53
(4)
:
2547
66
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
150. 
Byrd
KK
,
Hardnett
F
,
Hou
JG
,
Clay
PG
,
Suzuki
S
,
Camp
NM
, et al
Improvements in retention in care and HIV viral suppression among persons with HIV and comorbid mental health conditions: patient-centered HIV care model
.
AIDS Behav
.
2020
;
24
(12)
:
3522
32
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
151. 
Foster
MG
,
Toll
BA
,
Ware
E
,
Eckard
AR
,
Sterba
KR
,
Rojewski
AM.
Optimizing the implementation of tobacco treatment for people with HIV: a pilot study
.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
.
2022
;
19
(19)
:
12896
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
152. 
Losada-Camacho
M.
Effect of pharmaceutical care program on depression among women with epilepsy: a randomized controlled trial (IPHIWWE study)
.
Epilepsy Behav
.
2022
;
129
(4)
:
108559
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
153. 
Evans
RL
,
Kirk
RF
,
Walker
PW
,
Rosenbluth
SA
,
McDonald
J.
Medication maintenance of mentally ill patients by a pharmacist in a community setting
.
Am J Hosp Pharm
.
1976
;
33
(7)
:
635
8
.
154. 
Dugas
JE
,
Brown
S.
Community mental health centers: a milieu for expansion of pharmacist services
.
Hosp Pharm
.
1978
;
13
(2)
:
78, 81
82, 84
passim
.
155. 
Dobbs
JH.
Drug histories obtained by pharmacists from psychiatric inpatients
.
Hosp Community Psychiatry
.
1981
;
32
(9)
:
639
40
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
156. 
Stimmel
GL
,
McGhan
WF
,
Wincor
MZ
,
Deandrea
DM.
Comparison of pharmacist and physician prescribing for psychiatric inpatients
.
Am J Hosp Pharm
.
1982
;
39
(9)
:
1483
6
. PMID:
[PubMed]
.
157. 
Saklad
SR
,
Ereshefsky
L
,
Jann
MW
,
Crismon
ML.
Clinical pharmacists’ impact on prescribing in an acute adult psychiatric facility
.
Drug Intell Clin Pharm
.
1984
;
18
(7-8)
:
632
4
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
158. 
Ahrens
TN
,
Sramek
JJ
,
Herrera
JM
,
Jewett
CM
,
Alcorn
VE.
Pharmacy-based screening program for tardive dyskinesia
.
Drug Intell Clin Pharm
.
1988
;
22
(3)
:
205
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
159. 
Wolf-Klein
GP
,
Levy
AP
,
Silverstone
FA
,
Smith
H
,
Papain
P
,
Foley
CJ.
Psychiatric profile of the noncompliant geriatric patient in the community
.
Int Psychogeriatr
.
1989
;
1
(2)
:
177
84
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
160. 
Bransgrove
LL
,
Kelly
MW.
Movement disorders in patients treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotic drugs
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
1994
;
51
(7)
:
895
9
. .
161. 
Furniss
L
,
Burns
A
,
Craig
SKL
,
Scobie
S
,
Cooke
J
,
Faragher
B.
Effects of a pharmacist’s medication review in nursing homes
.
Br J Psychiatry
.
2000
;
176
(6)
:
563
7
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
162. 
Stoner
SC
,
Worrel
JA
,
Jones
MT
,
Farrar
CA
,
Ramlatchman
LV.
Pharmacist‐designed and ‐implemented pharmaceutical care plan for antipsychotic‐induced movement disorders
.
Pharmacotherapy
.
2000
;
20
(5)
:
583
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
163. 
van Eijk
MEC.
Reducing prescribing of highly anticholinergic antidepressants for elderly people: randomised trial of group versus individual academic
.
BMJ
.
2001
;
322
(7287)
:
654
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
164. 
Brophy
GM
,
Tesoro
EP
,
Schrote
GL
,
Garnett
WR.
Pharmacist impact on posttraumatic seizure prophylaxis in patients with head injury
.
Pharmacotherapy
.
2002
;
22
(2)
:
251
5
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
165. 
Adler
DA
,
Bungay
KM
,
Wilson
IB
,
Pei
Y
,
Supran
S
,
Peckham
E
, et al
The impact of a pharmacist intervention on 6-month outcomes in depressed primary care patients
.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
.
2004
;
26
(3)
:
199
209
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
166. 
Crockett
J
,
Taylor
S
,
Grabham
A
,
Stanford
P.
Patient outcomes following an intervention involving community pharmacists in the management of depression
.
Aust J Rural Health
.
2006
;
14
(6)
:
263
9
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
167. 
Caballero
J
,
Souffrant
G
,
Heffernan
E.
Development and outcomes of a psychiatric pharmacy clinic for indigent patients
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
2008
;
65
(3)
:
229
33
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
168. 
Patterson
SM
,
Hughes
CM
,
Crealey
G
,
Cardwell
C
,
Lapane
KL.
An evaluation of an adapted U.S. model of pharmaceutical care to improve psychoactive prescribing for nursing home residents in Northern Ireland (Fleetwood Northern Ireland Study)
.
J Am Geriatrics Soc
.
2010
;
58
(1)
:
44
53
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
169. 
Davis
TD
,
Deen
T
,
Bryant-Bedell
K
,
Tate
V
,
Fortney
J.
Does minority racial-ethnic status moderate outcomes of collaborative care for depression?
Psychiatr Serv
.
2011
;
62
(11)
:
1282
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
170. 
Litzer
MH.
The impact of a pharmacist assisted clinic upon medication adherence and quality of life in mental health patients
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2013
;
2
(8)
:
236
9
. .
171. 
Bruhn
H
,
Bond
CM
,
Elliott
AM
,
Hannaford
PC
,
Lee
AJ
,
McNamee
P
, et al
Pharmacist-led management of chronic pain in primary care: results from a randomised controlled exploratory trial
.
BMJ Open
.
2013
;
3
(4)
:
e002361
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
172. 
Kersten
H
,
Molden
E
,
Tolo
IK
,
Skovlund
E
,
Engedal
K
,
Wyller
TB.
Cognitive effects of reducing anticholinergic drug burden in a frail elderly population: a randomized controlled trial
.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
.
2013
;
68
(3)
:
271
8
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
173. 
Schneiderhan
ME
,
Shuster
SM
,
Davey
CS.
Twelve-month prospective randomized study of pharmacists utilizing point-of-care testing for metabolic syndrome and related conditions in subjects prescribed antipsychotics
.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord
.
2014
;
16
(5)
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
174. 
Dhital
R
,
Norman
I
,
Whittlesea
C
,
Murrells
T
,
McCambridge
J.
The effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions delivered by community pharmacists: randomized controlled trial
.
Addiction
.
2015
;
110
(10)
:
1586
94
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
175. 
Dipaula
BA
,
Menachery
E.
Physician-pharmacist collaborative care model for buprenorphine-maintained opioid-dependent patients
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2015
;
55
(2)
:
187
92
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
176. 
Phimarn
W
,
Kaewphila
P
,
Suttajit
S
,
Saramunee
K.
Depression screening and advisory service provided by community pharmacist for depressive students in university
.
Springerplus
.
2015
;
4
:
470
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
177. 
Doyle
D
,
Emmett
M
,
Crist
A
,
Robinson
C
,
Grome
M.
Improving the care of dual eligible patients in rural federally qualified health centers: the impact of care coordinators and clinical pharmacists
.
J Prim Care Community Health
.
2016
;
7
(2)
:
118
21
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
178. 
Kanwal
F
,
Pyne
JM
,
Tavakoli-Tabasi
S
,
Nicholson
S
,
Dieckgraefe
B
,
Storay
E
, et al
Collaborative care for depression in chronic hepatitis C clinics
.
Psychiatr Serv
.
2016
;
67
(10)
:
1076
82
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
179. 
Parikh
M
,
Ebong
EE
,
Harris
E
,
Barnes
B.
Evaluation of clinical pharmacy services within the primary care-mental health integration model at the Tuscaloosa Veterans Affairs Medical Center
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2016
;
6
(5)
:
260
5
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
180. 
Moga
DC
,
Abner
EL
,
Rigsby
DN
,
Eckmann
L
,
Huffmyer
M
,
Murphy
RR
, et al
Optimizing medication appropriateness in older adults: a randomized clinical interventional trial to decrease anticholinergic burden
.
Alz Res Ther
.
2017
;
9
(1)
:
36
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
181. 
Pardo
D
,
Miller
L
,
Chiulli
D.
Implementation of a pharmacy consult to reduce co-prescribing of opioids and benzodiazepines in a veteran population
.
Subst Abus
.
2017
;
38
(2)
:
157
60
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
182. 
Badr
AF
,
Kurdi
S
,
Alshehri
S
,
McManus
C
,
Lee
J.
Pharmacists’ interventions to reduce sedative/hypnotic use for insomnia in hospitalized patients
.
Saudi Pharm J
.
2018
;
26
(8)
:
1204
7
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
183. 
Bingham
J
,
Axon
D
,
Scovis
N
,
Taylor
A.
Evaluating the effectiveness of clinical pharmacy consultations on nutrition, physical activity, and sleep in improving patient-reported psychiatric outcomes for individuals with mental illnesses
.
Pharmacy
.
2018
;
7
(1)
:
2
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
184. 
Gibu
M
,
Clark
J
,
Gold
J.
Mental health pharmacists as interim prescribers
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2017
;
7
(3)
:
111
5
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
185. 
Mooney
EV
,
Hamper
JG
,
Willis
RT
,
Farinha
TL
,
Ricchetti
CA.
Evaluating patient satisfaction with pharmacist-administered long-acting injectable antipsychotics in the community pharmacy
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2018
;
58
(4S)
:
S24
9.e2
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
186. 
Chavez
B
,
Kosirog
E.
Impact on an integrated psychiatric pharmacy service in a primary care clinic
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2019
;
9
(4)
:
269
74
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
187. 
Heins
K.
Fairview Pharmacy Services clozapine monitoring program: description and evaluation of a clinical pharmacy service
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2019
;
9
(3)
:
138
40
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
188. 
Maryan
S
,
Harms
M
,
McAllister
E
,
DeJongh
B.
Comparison of clozapine monitoring and adverse event management in a psychiatrist-only and a clinical pharmacist-psychiatrist collaborative clinic
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2019
;
9
(2)
:
70
5
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
189. 
Shilpa
HSS
,
Kumar
NN
,
Maheswari
E
,
Virupaksha
HS
,
Subeesh
V
,
Saraswathy
GR
, et al
Deprescribing of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs amongst the psychiatric patients of a tertiary care Hospital
.
Asian J Psychiatr
.
2019
;
44
(1)
:
189
94
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
190. 
Stuhec
M
,
Bratović
N
,
Mrhar
A.
Impact of clinical pharmacist’s interventions on pharmacotherapy management in elderly patients on polypharmacy with mental health problems including quality of life: A prospective non-randomized study
.
Sci Rep
.
2019
;
9
(1)
:
16856
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
191. 
Raynsford
J
,
Dada
C
,
Stansfield
D
,
Cullen
T.
Impact of a specialist mental health pharmacy team on medicines optimisation in primary care for patients on a severe mental illness register: a pilot study
.
Eur J Hosp Pharm
.
2018
;
27
(1)
:
31
5
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
192. 
Watkins
VA
,
Michaels
NM
,
Jackson
DL
,
Rhodes
LA
,
Marciniak
MW.
The effect of community pharmacist–led health coaching on clinical outcomes
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2020
;
60
(3)
:
S65
9
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
193. 
Ahmed
S
,
Tahir
R
,
Akhtar
U
,
Faiz
M.
Pharmacogenomics guided prescription changes improved medication effectiveness in patients with mental health-related disability: a retrospective cohort analyses
.
Front Genet
.
2021
;
12
:
644694
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
194. 
Butala
N
,
Williams
A
,
Kneebusch
J
,
Mitchell
M.
Impact of a pharmacist-driven tardive dyskinesia screening service
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2021
;
11
(4)
:
248
53
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
195. 
Hefazi
E
,
Boggie
D
,
Huynh
T
,
Lee
KC.
Influence of psychotropic medications on readmission rates of patients receiving a pharmacist discharge medication reconciliation
.
J Pharm Pract
.
2021
;
34
(5)
:
741
5
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
196. 
Lowrie
R
,
Stock
K
,
Lucey
S
,
Knapp
M
,
Williamson
A
,
Montgomery
M
, et al
Pharmacist led homeless outreach engagement and non-medical independent prescribing (Rx) (PHOENIx) intervention for people experiencing homelessness: a non-randomised feasibility study
.
Int J Equity Health
.
2021
;
20
(1)
:
19
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
197. 
Margulis
A
,
Uhlyar
S
,
Chin-Beckford
N
,
DeRonde
K
,
Salazar
V
,
Abbo
L
, et al
Clinical pharmacist input on HIV management may improve antiretroviral prescribing for psychiatric patients
.
Am J Health Syst Pharm
.
2020
;
78
(Supplement_1)
:
S10
5
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
198. 
Sahr
M
,
Kelsh
S
,
Blower
N
,
Sohn
M.
Pilot Study of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) cessation methods
.
Pharmacy
.
2021
;
9
(1)
:
21
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
199. 
Stuhec
M
,
Tement
V.
Positive evidence for clinical pharmacist interventions during interdisciplinary rounding at a psychiatric hospital
.
Sci Rep
.
2021
;
11
(1)
:
13641
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
200. 
Accomando
M
,
DeWitt
K
,
Porter
B.
Pharmacist impact on medication reconciliation of behavioral health patients boarding in the emergency department
.
Ment Health Clin
.
2022
;
12
(3)
:
187
92
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
201. 
Bawazeer
G
,
Alsaad
S
,
Almalag
H
,
Alqahtani
A
,
Altulaihi
N
,
Alodhayani
A
, et al
Impact of specialized clinics on medications deprescribing in older adults: a pilot study in ambulatory care clinics in a teaching hospital
.
Saudi Pharm J
.
2022
Jul
;
30
(7)
:
1027
35
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
202. 
Chulasai
P
,
Chinwong
D
,
Vientong
P
,
Lertsinudom
S
,
Kanjanarat
P
,
Hall
JJ
, et al
Smartphone application for smoking cessation (Quit with US): a randomized controlled trial among young adult light smokers in Thailand
.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
.
2022
;
19
(14)
:
8265
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
203. 
Farag
M
,
Hoti
K
,
Hughes
J
,
Chalmers
L.
Impact of a clinical pharmacist on medication safety in mental health hospital-in-the-home: a retrospective analysis
.
Int J Clin Pharm
.
2022
;
44
(4)
:
947
55
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
204. 
Light
J
,
Ruh
C
,
Ott
M
,
Banker
C
,
Meaney
D
,
Doloresco
F
, et al
The effect of pharmacy-led medication reconciliation on odds of psychiatric relapse at a community hospital
.
J Pharm Pract
.
2022
;
9
(5)
:
089719002211371. DOI: 10.1177/08971900221137100
. PMID:
[PubMed]
.
205. 
McDuffie
AC
,
Varughese
SJ
,
Duffy
AR
,
Faiella
AS
,
Wegener
LF
,
Singer
KA
, et al
Pharmacist-led telehealth tobacco cessation services compared with usual care in a community health center
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2022
;
62
(6)
:
1891
6.e2
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
206. 
Mertens
V
,
Jacobs
L
,
Knops
N
,
Alemzadeh
SM
,
Vandeven
K
,
Swartenbroekx
J
, et al
Bedside medication review with cognitive and depression screening by a clinical pharmacist as part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment in hospitalized older patients with polypharmacy: a pilot study
.
Alotaibi NH. PLoS One
.
2022
;
17
(10)
:
e0276402
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
207. 
Oliveira
J
,
Costa E Silva
T
,
Cabral
A
,
Lavrador
M
,
Almeida
F
,
Macedo
A
, et al
Pharmacist-led medication reconciliation on admission to an acute psychiatric hospital unit
.
Pharm Pract
.
2022
;
20
(2)
:
2650
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
208. 
Pals
H
,
Bratberg
J.
Improving access to care via psychiatric clinical pharmacist practitioner collaborative management of buprenorphine for opioid use disorder
.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
.
2022
;
62
(4)
:
1422
9
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
.
209. 
Sacarny
A
,
Safran
E
,
Steffel
M
,
Dunham
JR
,
Abili
OD
,
Mohajeri
L
, et al
Effect of pharmacist email alerts on concurrent prescribing of opioids and benzodiazepines by prescribers and primary care managers
.
JAMA Health Forum
.
2022
;
3
(9)
:
e223378
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
210. 
Steel
A
,
Hopwood
H
,
Goodwin
E
,
Sampson
EL.
Multidisciplinary residential home intervention to improve outcomes for frail residents
.
BMC Health Serv Res
.
2022
;
22
(1)
:
58
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.
211. 
Vaillancourt
R
,
Gallagher
S
,
Cameron
JD
,
Dhalla
R.
Cannabis use in patients with insomnia and sleep disorders: retrospective chart review
.
Can Pharm J
.
2022
;
155
(3)
:
175
80
. . PMID:
[PubMed]
. PMCID:
[PubMed]
.

Disclosures: The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

APPENDIX: Included studies sorted by disease state, year, and first author

Multiple disease states

Multiple disease states
Multiple disease states

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder

Intellectual Disabilities

Intellectual Disabilities
Intellectual Disabilities

Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder

Parkinson Disease

Parkinson Disease
Parkinson Disease

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia

Sleep Disorder

Sleep Disorder
Sleep Disorder

Substance Use Disorder

Substance Use Disorder
Substance Use Disorder

Tobacco Use Disorder

Tobacco Use Disorder
Tobacco Use Disorder

Medical Disease With Psychiatric Comorbidity

Medical Disease With Psychiatric Comorbidity
Medical Disease With Psychiatric Comorbidity

Disease State Not Specified

Disease State Not Specified
Disease State Not Specified
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.