Antimicrobials are used to treat numerous infections. Despite their wide usage, they may cause neuropsychiatric complications which may be overlooked by healthcare providers. While the occurrence of these adverse events can be rare, they can make treatment very difficult. The toolbox provides a list of antimicrobials and their corresponding psychiatric and neurologic adverse events to assist health care practitioners in their practice.

Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Antimicrobial Agents

Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Antimicrobial Agents
Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Antimicrobial Agents
PENICILLINS
Amoxicillin
1.
Czerwenka
W
,
Gruenwald
C
,
Conen
D.
Aseptic meningitis after treatment with amoxicillin
.
BMJ
.
1999
;
318
(
7197
):
1521
.
PubMed PMID: 10356006
.
2.
Product Information: amoxicillin oral capsules, oral suspension, oral chewable tablets, amoxicillin oral capsules, oral suspension, oral chewable tablets
.
Teva Pharmaceuticals USA (per DailyMed)
,
Sellersville, PA
,
2013
.
3.
Rao
R.
Penicillin psychosis in later life: Hoigne's syndrome revisited
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J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
.
1999
;
11
(
4
):
517
8
.
PubMed PMID: 10570770
.
Ampicillin
1.
Hodgman
T
,
Dasta
JF
,
Armstrong
DK
,
Visconti
JA
,
Reilley
TE.
Ampicillin-associated seizures
.
South Med J
.
1984
;
77
(
10
):
1323
5
.
PubMed PMID: 6484655
.
Oxacillin
1.
Malone
AJ
,
Field
S
,
Rosman
J
,
Shemerdiak
WP.
Neurotoxic reaction to oxacillin
.
N Engl J Med
.
1977
;
296
(
8
):
453
. .
Penicillin G
1.
Barrons
RW
,
Murray
KM
,
Richey
RM.
Populations at risk for penicillin-induced seizures
.
Ann Pharmacother
.
1992
;
26
(
1
):
26
9
.
PubMed PMID: 1606340
.
2.
Love
DW
,
Salter
FJ.
Suspected neurotoxicity from intravenous penicillin: a patient case
.
Am J Hosp Pharm
.
1972
;
29
(
5
):
424
7
.
PubMed PMID: 5035587
.
3.
Massey
EW
,
Pleet
AB
,
Brannon
WL.
Penicillin neuropathy
.
Anesth Analg
.
1979
;
58
(
1
):
63
4
.
PubMed PMID: 571230
.
4.
Schmitt
BD
,
Krivit
W.
Benign intracranial hypertension associated with a delayed penicillin reaction
.
Pediatrics
.
1969
;
43
(
1
):
50
3
.
PubMed PMID: 5764068
.
5.
Seamans
KB
,
Gloor
P
,
Dobell
RA
,
Wyant
JD.
Penicillin-induced seizures during cardiopulmonary bypass. A clinical and electroencephalographic study
.
N Engl J Med
.
1968
;
278
(
16
):
861
8
. .
6.
Sokoll
MD
,
Gergis
SD.
Antibiotics and neuromuscular function
.
Anesthesiology
.
1981
;
55
(
2
):
148
59
.
PubMed PMID: 6266284
.
Penicillin V
1.
Product Information: penicillin V potassium oral tablet, powder for solution, penicillin V potassium oral tablet, powder for solution
.
Teva Pharmaceuticals USA (per DailyMed)
,
Sellersville, PA
,
2013
2.
River
Y
,
Averbuch-Heller
L
,
Weinberger
M
,
Meiner
Z
,
Mevorach
D
,
Schlesinger
I
et al
.
Antibiotic induced meningitis
.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
.
1994
;
57
(
6
):
705
8
.
PubMed PMID: 8006651
.
3.
Sokoll
MD
&
Gergis
SD
:
Antibiotics and neuromuscular function
.
Anaesthesiology
1981
;
55
(
2
):
148
159
Piperacillin/Tazobactam
1.
Product Information: PIPRACIL(R) IV, IM injection, piperacillin IV, IM injection
.
Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc.
,
Philadelphia, PA
,
2007
.
CARBEPENEMS
Doripenem
1.
Product Information: DORIBAX(R) intravenous injection solution, doripenem intravenous injection solution
.
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (per FDA)
,
Titusville, NJ
,
2013
.
Ertapenem
1.
Product Information: INVANZ(R) IV, IM injection, ertapenem IV, IM injection
.
MERCK & CO., INC
,
Whitehouse Station, NJ
,
2009
.
2.
Saidel-Odes
L
,
Borer
A
,
Riesenberg
K
,
Smolyakov
R
,
Schlaeffer
F.
History of cerebrovascular events: a relative contraindication to ertapenem treatment
.
Clin Infect Dis
.
2006
;
43
(
2
):
262
3
.
DOI: 10.1086/505304. PubMed PMID: 16779758
.
Imipenem
1.
Duque
A
,
Altimiras
J
,
García-Cases
C
,
Vidal
P.
Vertigo caused by intravenous imipenem/cilastatin
.
DICP
.
1991
;
25
(
9
):
1009
.
PubMed PMID: 1949961
.
2.
Product Information: PRIMAXIN(R) IM injection, imipenem, cilastatin IM injection
.
Merck & Co, Inc
,
Whitehouse Station, NJ
,
2006
.
Meropenem
1.
Product Information: MERREM(R) intravenous injection, meropenem intravenous injection
.
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP (per FDA)
,
Wilmington, DE
,
2013
.
CEPHALOSPORINS: FIRST GENERATION
Cefazolin
1.
Bechtel
TP
,
Slaughter
Rl
, &
Moore
TD.
Am J Hosp Pharm
1980
.
2.
Gardner
ME
,
Fritz
WL
, &
Hyland
RN.
Drug Intell Clin Pharm
1978
.
3.
Geyer
J
,
Höffler
D
,
Demers
HG
,
Niemeyer
R.
Cephalosporin-induced encephalopathy in uremic patients
.
Nephron
.
1988
;
48
(
3
):
237
.
PubMed PMID: 3352852
.
4.
Herd
AM
,
Ross
CA
,
Bhattacharya
SK.
Acute confusional state with postoperative intravenous cefazolin
.
BMJ
.
1989
;
299
(
6695
):
393
4
.
PubMed PMID: 2506990
.
5.
Josse
S
,
Godin
M
,
Fillastre
JP.
Cefazolin-Induced Encephalopathy in a Uraemic Patient
.
Nephron
.
1987
;
45
(
1
):
72
72
. .
6.
Ortiz
A
,
Martin-Llonch
N
,
Garron
MP
et al
.
Rev Infect Dis
1991
.
7.
Product Information: cefazolin IM, IV injection, cefazolin IM, IV injection
.
Hospira, Inc
,
Lake Forest, IL
,
2008
.
8.
Schwankhaus
JD
,
Masucci
EF
, &
Kurtzke
JF.
Ann Neurol
1985
.
Cephalexin
1.
Product Information: cephalexin oral capsules, cephalexin oral capsules
.
Karalex Pharma, LLC
,
Woodcliff Lake, NJ
,
2010
.
CEPHALOSPORINS: SECOND GENERATION
Cefaclor
1.
Product Information: cefaclor oral capsules, cefaclor oral capsules
.
Westward Pharmaceuticals Corp
,
Eatontown, NJ
,
2006
.
Cefotetan
1.
Product Information: cefotetan IV, IM injection, cefotetan IV, IM injection
.
APP Pharmaceuticals, LLC
,
Schaumburg, IL
,
2008
.
2.
Robertson
A
,
Fink
S
,
Karp
W.
Effect of cephalosporins on bilirubin-albumin binding
.
J Pediatr
.
1988
;
112
(
2
):
291
4
.
PubMed PMID: 3339510
.
Cefoxitin
1.
Product Information: Cefoxitin IV injection, Cefoxitin IV injection
.
APP Pharmaceuticals LLC
,
Schaumburg, IL
,
2008
.
2.
Rockney
R
:
A variant of Hoigne's syndrome following intramuscular cefoxitin sodium?
.
AJDC
1987
;
141
:
475
476
.;
silber & diangelo, 1987
.
Cepfrozil
1.
Product Information: Cefzil(R) oral tablets, suspension, cefprozil oral tablets, suspension
.
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
,
Princeton, NJ
,
2007
.
Cefuroxime
1.
Product Information: ZINACEF(R) injection, cefuroxime injection
.
GlaxoSmithKline
,
Research Triangle Park, NC
,
2006
.
CEPHALOSPORINS: THIRD GENERATION
Cefdnir
1.
Product Information: OMNICEF(R) oral capsules, suspension, cefdinir oral capsules, suspension
.
Abbott Laboratories
,
North Chicago, IL
;
2007.
Cefditoren
1.
Product Information: Spectracef(R) oral tablets, cefditoren pivoxil oral tablets
.
Cornerstone Therapeutics Inc
,
Cary, NC
;
2009.
Cefixime
1.
Product Information: SUPRAX(R) oral tablets, suspension, cefixime oral tablets, suspension
.
Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc
,
Baltimore, MD
;
2008
.
Cefotaxime
1.
Product Information: CLAFORAN(R) IV IM injection, cefotaxime IV IM injection
.
Sanofi-Aventis US LLC
,
Bridgewater, NJ
;
2007
.
Cefpodoxime
1.
Product Information: VANTIN(R) oral tablets and oral suspension, cefpodoxime proxetil oral tablets and oral suspension
.
Pharmacia & Upjohn
,
New York, NY
;
2007
.
Ceftazidime
1.
Hillsley
RE
,
Massey
EW.
Truncal asterixis associated with ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin
.
Neurology
.
1991
;
41
(
12
):
2008
2008
. .
2.
Product Information: FORTAZ(R) injection, ceftazidime injection
.
GlaxoSmithKline
,
Research Triangle Park, NC
;
2007
.
Ceftibuten
1.
Product Information: CEDAX(R) oral capsules, suspension, ceftibuten oral capsules, suspension
.
Shionogi USA, Inc.
,
Florham Park, NJ
;
2008
.
Ceftizoxime
1.
Anon
:
Japan Research Committee on Ceftizoxime. Experience with ceftizoxime: an overall summary of clinical trials in Japan
.
J Antimicrob Chemother
1982
;
10
(
Suppl C
):
311
326
.
Ceftriaxone
1.
Moskovitz
BL.
Clinical adverse effects during ceftriaxone therapy
.
Am J Med
.
1984
;
77
(
4C
):
84
8
.
PubMed PMID: 6093526
.
2.
Product Information: ROCEPHIN(R) IV, IM injection, ceftriaxone sodium IV, IM injection
.
Roche Laboratories Inc
,
Nutley, NJ
;
2009
.
CEPHALOSPORINS: FOURTH/FIFTH GENERATION
Cefepime
1.
Arguedas
AG
,
Stutman
HR
,
Zaleska
M
,
et al
:
Cefepime: Pharmacokinetics and clinical response in patients with cystic fibrosis
.
AJDC
1992
;
146
:
797
802
.
2.
Barbhaiya
RH
,
Knupp
CA
,
Tenney
J
,
Martin
RR
,
Weidler
DJ
,
Pittman
KA.
Safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of cefepime administered intramuscularly to healthy subjects
.
J Clin Pharmacol
.
1990
;
30
(
10
):
900
10
.
PubMed PMID: 2229450
.
3.
Fishbain
JT
,
Monahan
TP
,
Canonico
MM.
Cerebral manifestations of cefepime toxicity in a dialysis patient
.
Neurology
.
2000
;
55
(
11
):
1756
7
.
PubMed PMID: 11113245
.
4.
Product Information: CEFEPIME intravenous, intramuscular injection powder for solution, cefepime HCl intravenous, intramuscular injection powder for solution
.
SAGENT Pharmaceuticals (per DailyMed)
,
Schaumburg, IL
;
2012
.
5.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
:
FDA Drug Safety Communication: Cefepime and risk of seizure in patients not receiving dosage adjustments for kidney impairment
.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
.
Silver Spring; MD
.
2012
.
6.
Wong
KM
,
Chan
WK
,
Chan
YH
,
Li
CS.
Cefepime-related neurotoxicity in a haemodialysis patient
.
Nephrol Dial Transplant
.
1999
;
14
(
9
):
2265
6
.
PubMed PMID: 10489256
.
Ceftaroline
1.
Product Information: TEFLARO(TM) IV injection, ceftaroline fosamil IV injection
.
Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc
,
St Louis, MO
;
2010
.
FLUOROQUINOLONES
Ciprofloxacin
1.
Altés
J
,
Gascó
J
,
de Antonio
J
,
Salas
A
,
Villalonga
C.
Ciprofloxacin and delirium
.
Ann Intern Med
.
1989
;
110
(
2
):
170
1
.
PubMed PMID: 2909214
.
2.
Asperilla
MO
,
Smego
RA.
Eosinophilic meningitis associated with ciprofloxacin
.
Am J Med
.
1989
;
87
(
5
):
589
90
.
PubMed PMID: 2816976
.
3.
Darwish
T.
Ciprofloxacin-induced seizures in a healthy patient
.
N Z Med J
.
2008
;
121
(
1277
):
104
5
.
PubMed PMID: 18677343
.
4.
Hollweg
M
,
Kapfhammer
HP
,
Krupinski
M
,
Möller
HJ.
[Psychopathological syndromes in treatment with gyrase inhibitors]
.
Nervenarzt
.
1997
;
68
(
1
):
38
47
.
PubMed PMID: 9132619
.
5.
Jay
GT
,
Fitzgerald
JM.
Ciprofloxacin-induced delirium
.
Ann Pharmacother
.
1997
;
31
(
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252
.
PubMed PMID: 9034431
.
6.
MacLeod
W.
Case report: severe neurologic reaction to ciprofloxacin
.
Can Fam Physician
.
2001
;
47
:
553
5
.
PubMed PMID: 11281089
.
7.
Product Information: CIPRO(R) oral suspension, ciprofloxacin oral suspension
.
Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. (per FDA)
,
Wayne, NJ
;
2013
.
8.
Thomas
RJ
&
Reagan
DR
:
Association of a Tourette-like syndrome with ofloxacin
.
Ann Pharmacother
1996
;
30
:
138
140
.
9.
Winrow
AP
,
Supramaniam
G.
Benign intracranial hypertension after ciprofloxacin administration
.
Arch Dis Child
.
1990
;
65
(
10
):
1165
6
.
PubMed PMID: 2248512
.
Gatifloxacin
1.
Product Information: ZYMAR(R) ophthalmic solution, gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution
.
Allergan, Inc (Per DailyMed)
,
Irvine, CA
,
2010
.
Gemifloxacin
1.
Product Information: FACTIVE(R) oral tablets, gemifloxacin mesylate oral tablets
.
Cornerstone Therapeutics
,
Cary, NC
;
2011
.
Levofloxacin
1.
Hakko
E
,
Mete
B
,
Ozaras
R
,
Tabak
F
,
Ozturk
R
,
Mert
A.
Levofloxacin-induced delirium
.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
.
2005
;
107
(
2
):
158
9
. .
2.
Kiangkitiwan
B
,
Doppalapudi
A
,
Fonder
M
,
Solberg
K
,
Bohner
B.
Levofloxacin-induced delirium with psychotic features
.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
.
2008
;
30
(
4
):
381
3
. .
3.
Kushner
JM
,
Peckman
HJ
,
Snyder
CR.
Seizures associated with fluoroquinolones
.
Ann Pharmacother
.
2001
;
35
(
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):
1194
8
.
PubMed PMID: 11675843
.
4.
Moorthy
N
,
Raghavendra
N
,
Venkatarathnamma
PN.
Levofloxacin-induced acute psychosis
.
Indian J Psychiatry
.
2008
;
50
(
1
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57
8
.
DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.39762. PubMed PMID: 19771310; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2745871
.
5.
Product Information: LEVAQUIN(R) oral film coated tablets, oral solution, intravenous injection solution concentrate, intravenous injection solution, levofloxacin oral film coated tablets, oral solution, intravenous injection solution concentrate, intravenous injection solution
.
Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (per FDA)
,
Titusville, NJ
;
2013
.
Moxifloxacin
1.
Product Information: AVELOX(R) oral film-coated tablets, intravenous injection solution, moxifloxacin HCl oral film -coated tablets, intravenous injection solution
.
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. (per FDA)
,
Whitehouse Station, NJ
;
2013
.
2.
Tasleem
H
,
Viswanathan
R.
Moxifloxacin-induced delirium with hallucinations
.
Psychosomatics
.
2011
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52
(
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472
4
. .
3.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
:
FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA requires label changes to warn of risk for possibly permanent nerve damage from antibacterial fluoroquinolone drugs taken by mouth or by injection
.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
.
Rockville; MD
.
2013
.
Ofloxacin
1.
Gentry
LO
,
Rodriguez-Gomez
G
,
Kohler
RB
,
Khan
FA
,
Rytel
MW.
Parenteral followed by oral ofloxacin for nosocomial pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization
.
Am Rev Respir Dis
.
1992
;
145
(
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):
31
5
.
DOI: 10.1164/ajrccm/145.1.31. PubMed PMID: 1731595
.
2.
Monk
JP
,
Campoli-Richards
DM.
Ofloxacin. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use
.
Drugs
.
1987
;
33
(
4
):
346
91
.
PubMed PMID: 3297617
.
3.
Product Information: ofloxacin oral tablets, ofloxacin oral tablets
.
Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc (per DailyMed)
,
Sellersville, PA
;
2013
.
4.
Sieb
JP.
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics block neuromuscular transmission
.
Neurology
.
1998
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50
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804
7
.
PubMed PMID: 9521283
.
5.
Tack
KJ
,
Smith
JA.
The safety profile of ofloxacin
.
Am J Med
.
1989
;
87
(
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):
78S
81S
.
PubMed PMID: 2690623
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MACROLIDES
Azithromycin
1.
Cone
LA
,
Padilla
L
,
Potts
BE.
Delirium in the elderly resulting from azithromycin therapy
.
Surg Neurol
.
2003
;
59
(
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):
509
11
.
PubMed PMID: 12826358
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2.
Farooq
O
,
Memon
Z
,
Stojanovski
SD
,
Faden
HS.
Azithromycin-induced agitation and choreoathetosis
.
Pediatr Neurol
.
2011
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44
(
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311
3
. .
3.
Product Information: ZITHROMAX(R) oral suspension, oral tablets, azithromycin oral suspension, oral tablets
.
Pfizer, Inc
,
New York, NY
;
2011
.
Clarithromycin
1.
Product Information: BIAXIN(R) Filmtab(R) oral tablets, XL Filmtab(R) extended-release oral tablets, granules for oral suspension, clarithromycin oral tablets, extended-release oral tablets, granules for oral suspension
.
Abbott Laboratories
,
North Chicago, IL
;
2008
.
2.
Baranowski
WJ.
Clarithromycin-induced hypersomnia in children
.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
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2011
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49
(
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297
9
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PubMed PMID: 21543032
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3.
Cone
LA
,
Sneider
RA
,
Nazemi
R
,
Dietrich
EJ.
Mania due to clarithromycin therapy in a patient who was not infected with human immunodeficiency virus
.
Clin Infect Dis
.
1996
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22
(
3
):
595
6
.
PubMed PMID: 8853002
.
4.
Erkek
N
,
Senel
S
,
Karacan
C.
Visual hallucinations possibly associated with clarithromycin administration at therapeutic dosage in two children
.
Med Princ Pract
.
2009
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18
(
4
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332
4
.
DOI: 10.1159/000215734. PubMed PMID: 19494544
.
5.
Fidan
T
,
Fidan
V.
Clarithromycin-induced mania in a child
.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
.
2009
;
47
(
6
):
402
4
.
PubMed PMID: 19473602
.
6.
Steinman
MA
,
Steinman
TI.
Clarithromycin-associated visual hallucinations in a patient with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
.
Am J Kidney Dis
.
1996
;
27
(
1
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143
6
.
PubMed PMID: 8546130
.
7.
Tse
KC
,
Li
FK
,
Tang
S
,
Lam
MF
,
Chan
TM
,
Lai
KN.
Delusion of worm infestation associated with clarithromycin in a patient on peritoneal dialysis
.
Perit Dial Int
.
2001
;
21
(
4
):
415
6
.
PubMed PMID: 11587409
.
Erythromycin
1.
Brady
W
&
Hall
K
:
Erythromycin-related dystonic reaction (letter)
.
Am J Emerg Med
1992
;
10
(
6
):
616
.
2.
Product Information: ERY-TAB(R) delayed-release oral tablets, erythromycin delayed-release oral tablets
.
Abbott Laboratories
,
North Chicago, IL
;
2010
.
AMINOGLYCOSIDES
Amikacin
1.
Product Information: amikacin sulfate IM, IV injection, amikacin sulfate IM, IV injection
.
Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc
,
Irvine, CA
;
2009
.
Gentamicin
1.
Boe
R
&
Conner
CS
:
Pseudotumor cerebri
.
JAMA
1973
;
226
:
567
.
2.
Buckley
RM
,
Watters
W
,
MacGregor
RR.
Persistent meningeal inflammation associated with intrathecal gentamicin
.
Am J Med Sci
.
1977
;
274
(
2
):
207
9
.
PubMed PMID: 579718
.
3.
Byrd
GJ
:
Report of gentamicin-associated organic brain syndrome
.
Drug Ther
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Tobramycin
1.
Product Information: TOBI(R) PODHALER(TM) oral inhalation, tobramycin inhalation powder oral inhalation
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Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation (per manufacturer)
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East Hanover, NJ
;
2013
.
URINARY TRACT ANTIBIOTICS
Fosfomycin
1.
Boerema
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102
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3.
MacGowan
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Infection
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1990
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18
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S107
8
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PubMed PMID: 2286455
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4.
Product Information: MONUROL(R) sachet oral solution, fosfomycin tromethamine oral solution
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Zambon Switzerland Ltd
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5.
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2.
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Am J Hosp Pharm
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4.
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Drug Intell Clin Pharm
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5.
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Br Med J
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6.
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8.
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OTHER ANTIBIOTICS
Aztreonam
1.
Product Information: AZACTAM(R) IV injection, aztreonam IV injection
.
Bristol-Myers Squibb
,
Princeton, NJ
;
2010
.
Chloramphenicol
1.
Product Information: chloramphenicol sodium succinate IV injection, chloramphenicol sodium succinate IV injection
.
APP Pharmaceuticals
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LLC, Schaumburg, IL
;
2008
.
2.
Ramilo
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Chloramphenicol neurotoxicity
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Pediatr Infect Dis J
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1988
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9
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Clindamycin
1.
Product Information: Clindesse(R) vaginal cream, clindamycin phosphate 2% vaginal cream
.
Ther-Rx Corporation (per FDA)
,
St. Louis, MO
;
2012
.
2.
Product Information: EVOCLIN(R) topical foam, clindamycin phosphate 1% topical foam
.
Stiefel Laboratories, Inc
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Research Triangle Park, NC
;
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.
3.
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MK
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Colistin
1.
Falagas
ME
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Kasiakou
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Toxicity of polymyxins: a systematic review of the evidence from old and recent studies
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Crit Care
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2006
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10
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2.
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Anesth Analg
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3.
Product Information: Coly-Mycin(R) M Parenteral intramuscular injection, intravenous injection, colistimethate intramuscular injection, intravenous injection
.
JHP Pharmaceuticals, LLC (per FDA)
,
Rochester, MI
,
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.
4.
Zauder
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Daptomycin
1.
Product Information: CUBICIN(R) IV injection, daptomycin IV injection
.
Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc
,
Lexington, MA
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2008
.
Doxycycline
1.
Lochhead
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&
Elston
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Doxycycline induced intracranial hypertension
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Br Med J
2003
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642
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2.
Product Information: ATRIDOX(R) subgingival controlled-release liquid, doxycycline hyclate 10% subgingival controlled-release liquid
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Zila Therapeutics, Inc
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Fort Collins, CO
;
2011
.
3.
Product Information: Vibramycin(R) Monohydrate oral suspension, doxycycline monohydrate oral suspension
.
Pfizer Labs (per FDA)
,
New York, NY
;
2013
.
Linezolid
1.
Product Information: ZYVOX(R) intravenous injection, oral tablets suspension, linezolid intravenous injection, oral tablets suspension
.
Pfizer Inc. (per FDA)
,
New York, NY
;
2013
.
Metronidazole
1.
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Bilge
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Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy in a uremic patient: a case report
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Nephron
.
2001
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108
9
.
DOI: 46052. PubMed PMID: 11528241
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2.
Corson
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Clin Infect Dis
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1994
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3.
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.
4.
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Am J Psychiatry
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5.
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Ann Pharmacother
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6.
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Clin Infect Dis
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8
.
PubMed PMID: 7986915
.
7.
Product Information: FLAGYL(R) oral tablets, metronidazole oral tablets
.
G.D. Searle (per FDA)
,
New York, NY
;
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.
8.
Uhl
MD
&
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CA
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Ann Intern Med
1996
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9.
Woodruff
BK
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EFM
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Reversible metronidazole-induced lesions of the cerebellar dentate nuclei
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N Engl J Med
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68
9
. .
Minocycline
1.
Donnet
A
,
Dufour
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,
Graziani
N
,
Grisoli
F.
Minocycline and benign intracranial hypertension
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Biomed Pharmacother
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2
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2.
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Lancet
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1974
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3.
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4.
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Churchill Livingstone Inc
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5.
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Ann Ophthalmol
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8
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6.
Product Information: DYNACIN(R) oral tablets, minocycline hcl oral tablets
.
MEDICIS
,
Scottsdale, AZ
;
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.
7.
Product Information: SOLODYN(TM) extended-release oral tablets, minocycline hcl extended-release oral tablets
.
MEDICIS Pharmaceutical Corporation
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;
2006
.
Quinupristin/dalfopristin
1.
Product Information: SYNERCID(R) IV injection, quinupristin and dalfopristin IV injection
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DSM Pharmaceuticals, Inc
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Greenville, NC
;
2010
.
Telavancin
1.
Stryjewski
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7
.
DOI: 10.1086/429914. PubMed PMID: 15889357
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Telithromycin
1.
Product Information: KETEK(R) oral tablets, telithromycin oral tablets
.
Sanofi-Aventis US, LLC
,
Bridgewater, NJ
,
2007
.
Terbinafine
1.
Product Information: Lamisil(R) oral granules, terbinafine HCl oral granules
.
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation (per FDA)
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East Hanover, NJ
;
2013
.
Tetracycline
1.
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3.
Product Information: tetracycline HCl oral capsule, tetracycline HCl oral capsule
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Barr Laboratories, Inc (per DailyMed)
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Pomona, NY
,
2006
.
4.
Sokoll
MD
&
Gergis
SD
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Tigecycline
1.
Product Information: TYGACIL(R) intravenous injection, tigecycline intravenous injection
.
Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (per FDA)
,
Philadelphia, PA
;
2013
.
Tinidazole
1.
Product Information: TINDAMAX(R) oral tablets, tinidazole oral tablets
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Mission Pharmacal Company
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San Antonio, TX
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Trimethroprim-Sulfamethoxazole
1.
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4.
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5.
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Tremor induced by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
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Ann Intern Med
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6.
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7.
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Can J Psychiatry
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Am J Med
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Hypoglycemia secondary to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole administration in a renal transplant patient
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Ann Pharmacother
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6
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PubMed PMID: 8453166
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Jurado
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Am J Med Sci
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PubMed PMID: 8686726
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Acute psychoses associated with the use of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
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Am J Med
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AR Scientific, Inc.
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Vancomycin
1.
Product Information: VANCOCIN(R) oral capsules, vancomycin HCl oral capsules
.
ViroPharma Incorporated (per FDA)
,
Exton, PA
;
2011
.
MYCOBACTERIAL AGENTS
Rifampin
1.
Product Information: RIFADIN(R) oral capsules, intravenous injection, rifampin oral capsules, intravenous injection
.
sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC
,
Bridgewater, NJ
;
2010
.
Rifaximin
1.
Product Information: XIFAXAN(R) oral tablets, rifaximin oral tablets
.
Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc
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Morrisville, NC
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2010
.
ANTIFUNGALS: ENCINOCANDINS
Anidulafungin
1.
Product Information: ERAXIS(TM) IV injection, anidulafungin IV injection
.
Roerig
,
New York, NY
;
2010
.
Caspofungin
1.
Product Information: CANCIDAS(TM) IV injection, caspofungin acetate IV injection
.
Merck and Co Inc
,
Whitehouse Station, NJ
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2009
.
Micafungin
1.
Product Information: MYCAMINE(R) lyophilized powder for IV injection, micafungin sodium lyophilized powder for IV injection
.
Astellas Pharma US, Inc. (per manufacturer)
,
Northbrook, IL
;
2013
.
ANTIFUNGALS: AZOLES
Fluconazole
1.
Matsumoto
K
,
Ueno
K
,
Yoshimura
H
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Morii
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Takada
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Ther Drug Monit
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6
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.
2.
Product Information: DIFLUCAN(R) oral tablets, powder for oral suspension, solution for intravenous infusion, fluconazole oral tablets, powder for oral suspension, solution for intravenous infusion
.
Roerig
,
New York, NY
;
2010
.
3.
Stern
JJ
,
Hartman
BJ
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Sharkey
P
,
Rowland
V
,
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KE
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Murray
HW
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Oral fluconazole therapy for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cryptococcosis: experience with 22 patients
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Am J Med
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1988
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85
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477
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Posaconazole
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OTHER ANTIFUNGALS
Amphotericin B deoxycholate
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Product Information: ANCOBON(R) oral capsules, flucytosine oral capsules
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ANTIVIRALS: NON-HIV MEDICATIONS
Acyclovir
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4.
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Cidofovir
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Famiciclovir
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3.
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Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp
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East Hanover, NJ
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Foscarnet
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Product Information: FOSCAVIR(R) IV injection, foscarnet sodium IV injection
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AstraZeneca LP (per FDA)
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Ganciclovir
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Oseltamivir
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Valacyclovir
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Valganciclovir
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Zanamivir
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ANTIRETROVIRALS: NON-HIV
Adefovir
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Gilead Sciences
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Boceprevir
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Merck & Co, Inc
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Entecavir
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Bristol-Myers Squibb
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Princeton, NJ
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Telaprevir
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Product Information: INCIVEK(TM) oral film coated tablets, telaprevir oral film coated tablets
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Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (per FDA)
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ANTIRETROVIRAL AGENTS: NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS
Abacavir
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Product Information: ZIAGEN(R) oral solution, oral tablets, abacavir sulfate oral solution, oral tablets
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GlaxoSmithKline
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3.
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Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
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4.
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Lancet
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PubMed PMID: 1975038
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Emtricitabine
1.
Product Information: EMTRIVA(R) oral capsules solution, emtricitabine oral capsules solution
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Gilead Sciences, Inc. (per FDA)
,
Foster City, CA
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2011
.
Lamivudine
1.
Product Information: EPIVIR(R) oral tablets, solution, lamivudine oral tablets, solution
.
GlaxoSmithKline
,
Research Triangle Park, NC
;
2009
.
Stavudine
1.
Product Information: ZERIT(R) oral capsules solution, stavudine oral capsules solution
.
Bristol-Myers Squibb (per FDA)
,
Princeton, NJ
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.
2.
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Tenofovir
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Product Information: VIREAD(R) oral tablets, powder, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate oral tablets, powder
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Gilead Sciences, Inc. (per manufacturer)
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Foster City, CA
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Zidovudine
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3.
Product Information: RETROVIR(R) oral tablets, capsules, syrup, zidovudine oral tablets, capsules, syrup
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GlaxoSmithKline
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ANTIRETROVIRAL AGENTS: NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS
Delavirdine
1.
Product Information: RESCRIPTOR(R) oral tablets, delavirdine mesylate oral tablets
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Pharmacia & Upjohn Company
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New York, NY
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Efavirenz
1.
Gallego
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2.
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Clin Infect Dis
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3.
Product Information: SUSTIVA(R) oral capsules, oral tablets, efavirenz oral capsules, oral tablets
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Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
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Princeton, NJ
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.
Etravirine
1.
Product Information: INTELENCE(R) oral tablets, etravirine oral tablets
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Tibotec Therapeutics (per FDA)
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Raritan, NJ
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.
Nevirapine
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Rilpivirine
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Product Information: EDURANT(R) oral tablets, rilpivirine oral tablets
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ANTIRETROVIRAL AGENTS: PROTEASE INHIBITORS
Atazanavir
1.
Product Information: REYATAZ(R) oral capsules, atazanavir sulfate oral capsules
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Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (per FDA)
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Princeton, NJ
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2011
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2.
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Atazanavir attains anti-HIV effects without altering lipid levels
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Inpharma December 1
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7
8
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Darunavir
1.
Product Information: PREZISTA(R) oral suspension, oral film coated tablets, darunavir oral suspension, oral film coated tablets
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Janssen Therapeutics (per FDA)
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Titusville, NJ
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2012
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Fosamprenavir
1.
Corbett
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Kashuba
ADM
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Fosamprenavir
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2.
Product Information: LEXIVA(R) oral tablets, suspension, fosamprenavir calcium oral tablets, suspension
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GlaxoSmithKline
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Indinavir
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2.
Product Information: CRIXIVAN(R) oral capsules, indinavir sulfate oral capsules
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Merck & Co, Inc
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Whitehouse Station, NJ
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.
Lopinavir
1.
Product Information: KALETRA oral film coated tablets, oral solution, lopinavir ritonavir oral film coated tablets, oral solution
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Abbott Laboratories (Per manufacturer)
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North Chicago, IL
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2012
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Nelfinavir
1.
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Kraetsch
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2.
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Product Information: VIRACEPT(R) oral tablets, powder, nelfinavir mesylate oral tablets, powder
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Agouron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
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La Jolla, CA
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Ritonavir
1.
Product Information: NORVIR(R) oral capsules, solution, ritonavir oral capsules, solution
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Abbott Laboratories
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North Chicago, IL
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Saquinavir
1.
Finlayson
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Author notes

Affiliation is Buffalo VA Medical Center, 3495 Bailey Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14215 for all authors.