This article discusses repression and stigmatization of movement activists. Building on recent discussions of repression and mobilization of social movements, a distinction is made between hard and soft repression. These forms of repression are further differentiated into state repression, confrontation with countermovements, and exclusion from the political and social environment. It is argued that all of these forms of repression work simultaneously. Furthermore, it is argued that a climate of soft repression facilitates hard repression. This reasoning is evidenced by material from in-depth interviews with thirty-six activists from the extreme-right movement in the Netherlands. Indeed, all forms of repression are experienced by the interviewees. The way they cope with repression depends on their pathway into activism. Disengagement from the movement appears to be unrelated to repression, but rather due to the daily hassles, interpersonal conflicts, and petty complaints as part of movement activism.
Stigmatization and Repression of Extreme-Right Activism in the Netherlands
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Annette Linden, Bert Klandermans; Stigmatization and Repression of Extreme-Right Activism in the Netherlands. Mobilization: An International Quarterly 1 June 2006; 11 (2): 213–228. doi: https://doi.org/10.17813/maiq.11.2.t87425625ltr5151
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