This study investigates the Europeanization of the anti-GM movement. Drawing on a quantitative protest event analysis that covers the period from 1995 to 2009 in Austria, France, Germany, Spain, and the UK, as well as in the sub-, supra- and transnational spheres (N = 1,865), it compares four pathways to Europeanization: domestication, externalization, supranationalization, and transnational pressure. It explains the relative prominence of these pathways through a general theory of movement behavior that is based on transaction costs and contextual opportunities and on the specifics of the EU's GM policy domain. It then examines alternatives to these standard predictions. While Europeanization is a multilevel process entailing national, sub-, supra- and transnational arenas, nation states remain the key arenas of movement for Europeanization, which is reinforced by the contentious nature of the GM policy domain. While grassroots actors show a certain tendency towards transnational activism, only well-resourced, professional actors exploit opportunities at all levels.

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