This article examines the relationship between religion and protest movements. Based on the data from China World Values Survey (2010–2014), we analyze the role of religious beliefs and religious practice on protest participation. We find that holding religious beliefs has a significantly positive effect on respondents’ reported inclination or willingness to participate in protest movements—their propensity to protest—but no influence on their actual participation. In contrast, taking part in religious activities—actual religious practice—has a significantly positive effect not only on one’s propensity for participation in protest movements but also on the actual protest participation. These findings seem to help explain the regime’s wariness on organized religions in China in general, and the tight control of unauthorized religious groups in particular.

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