It is well known that oil and gas extraction projects cause protests in many communities around the world, particularly in Latin America. However, not every community affected by the negative consequences of extraction engages in resistance. Based on the theoretical framework of social movement studies and anthropology, this article draws on findings from in-depth ethnographic fieldwork to examine why and how the members of a Mexican peasant community affected by oil and gas extraction engage in resistance. It does so by following Fletcher’s (2001) plea to reclaim the focus on the origins of resistance movements by adopting a nuanced understanding of the relevant factors regarding its emergence. The article argues that changes within external and internal power structures and social dynamics are crucial factors for the emergence of different forms of resistance, emphasizing the pluralistic and processual character of resistance.

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