Social movement organizations frequently enter into coalitions with other movement groups. Yet few movement scholars have investigated the circumstances that foster coalition work. This article analyzes both the contextual and organizational factors that spurred coalitions between women's suffrage organizations and Woman's Christian Temperance Unions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as they worked to win voting rights for women. We find that circumstances that threatened the goals of these organizations led to coalitions, while political opportunities did not produce coalition work. In addition, organizational resources and ideologies also influenced the likelihood of the emergence of a coalition.

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