Lowenstein first identified advising as a teaching approach that built on Crookston's developmental advising model. While Lowenstein emphasized utilizing teaching strategies, advisors come from different professional backgrounds and may not have this prior knowledge. A narrative case study approach explored the advising practices of teachers who became advisors (i.e., teacher-advisors) and the connections between teaching experience and academic advising. Through their narratives, the teacher-advisors in this case study provided a look at the connections between prior work experience and one's advising approach. Collaborating with teacher-advisors highlighted the ways in which advising as teaching is uniquely put into practice by professionals who identify as both advisor and teacher.

This article explores the concept of advising as teaching from the perspective of advisors who have pursued careers in both K-12 teaching and higher education advising. We propose that teacher-advisors enter the advising office with a unique perspective on the advising as teaching model because of their training and experience as former teachers. Narratives from teacher-advisors highlight the ways in which they put advising as teaching in practice as they merge their identities and experience into a singular philosophy.

Lowenstein stated that “learning transpires when a student makes sense of his or her overall curriculum just as it does when a person understands an individual course” (2005, p. 69). Lowenstein built upon Crookston's 1972 introduction of the phrase advising as teaching, creating criteria for advisors to refocus on guiding students' understanding of the connections between their academics and hands-on experiences. Similarly, academic advisors can draw connections between their own education and career experiences to direct their advising approach. The advising as teaching philosophy has grown since Crookston's coinage of the term: It has introduced pedagogy into the advisor's office—from developing advising syllabi to studying classroom models for fostering student-led advising sessions.

Without a centralized certification pathway for advising, academic advisors have entered the profession upon undergraduate graduation or later as a second career. Similar to guiding students to find connections in their college curriculum, academic advisors could be encouraged to use their backgrounds to inform their advising philosophy. However, universities often assume that advisors have the prior knowledge that is required to advise: that they are familiar with pedagogy and related terminology, that they can adapt their strategies according to each student's needs, and that they have experience in identifying and tracking student progress. If advisors have a background in education, how does this impact their academic advising philosophy? In what ways do teacher-advisors put advising as teaching into practice by applying their prior experience to their current position?

The Beginning of Advising as Teaching

Crookston (1972) was the first to articulate the model of advising as teaching. Lowenstein (2005) took the developmental view of advising as teaching further by articulating the teaching models of advising as “prescriptive advising,” “developmental advising,” and “advising as the coaching of learning” (p. 65). Lowenstein believed that prescriptive advising is analogous to “bookkeeping” where the advisor tells the student what to do, the student takes a “passive role,” and the experience is transactional. Regarding developmental advising, Lowenstein cited Crookston's work and argued that this model could also be named “advising as counseling” (p. 67). Developmental advising is a dialogue between advisor and student, but the student doesn't necessarily guide this process or inquiry. In the advising as the coaching of learning model, Lowenstein proposed that “an excellent advisor does the same of the student's entire curriculum that the excellent teacher does for a course” (p. 69). Lowenstein also described advising as learning-centered and interactive and a practice that seeks to change the student in the process. In a 2014 paper, Lowenstein further defined a “theory of advising as integrative learning,” with six central components (p. 1). Using these components, he defined advising as teaching as an active method of advising that is transformative, including the student and their learning goals. This case study will examine the similarities in advising and teaching philosophy and practice through the voices of advisors whose prior career was a classroom teacher.

Zooming In: Advising as Teaching Perspectives and Methods

In the advising office, advising as teaching can be put into practice using multiple advising approaches. Similar to the educational theory of Bloom's Taxonomy that teachers use to assess a student's mastery of specific material, Wilcox (2016) suggested that advising as teaching or learning-centered advising involves adjusting one's advising approach according to a student's stage of understanding. According to Wilcox, learning-centered advising operates on a continuum that includes passive and active forms of advising. It empowers students to learn from an advisor's example and progress through Bloom's Taxonomy to demonstrate mastery of their coursework, program path, or academic plan. Wilcox wrote that advising, like teaching, includes both the advisor and the student exchanging active and passive roles as they progress from a prescriptive or intrusive approach to a mentoring approach that puts the student in a position of agency.

Although the overall advising community considers prescriptive advising dated, Wilcox (2016) proposed that it can be used as a passive advising strategy to assist in early student learning. Pettay (2007) introduced several practical methods that can assist advisors to transition from a prescriptive advising approach to advising as teaching, one being an introductory course or orientation for new students. However, Pettay also recognized that prescriptive advising was a popular method for new advisors and was often the method institutions expect. Wilcox's continuum also acknowledged that prescriptive advising may have a role in the advising office but it should only be the beginning of the learning process for students over their college years. Similarly, Dial and McKeown (2019) proposed that early intervention advising—intrusive or proactive advising—can be used to connect with new, unregistered, or struggling students to foster an advising relationship. Pettay defined developmental advising as a middle ground between prescriptive advising and more active forms of advising. Gordon (2019) agreed that developmental advising still certainly could play a part in one's advising as teaching philosophy. Like most advising approaches that include more advisor-student communication and higher-order thinking, Gordon addressed that overbearing caseloads, students' expectations for advising, and university standards for advising could limit an advisor's developmental advising practice. While some of Gordon's suggestions for reform involved institutional policy changes or caseload reductions, Gordon—like Wilcox and Pettay—encouraged advisors to combine and vary their advising approaches depending on a student's preparedness and mastery.

Wilcox's (2016) continuum suggested that the best method is one that combines qualities from passive and active advising methods. As students begin to understand their academic plan, an advisor using this approach could assess students using Bloom's Taxonomy; students will soon be able to lead advising sessions and put their knowledge into practice. Advising as coaching (McClellan & Moser, 2011) and strengths-based advising (Schreiner & Anderson, 2005) could encourage students to approach their learning goals by recognizing their progress. Both methods also emphasized the relationship between advisors and students: “Students feel understood and known by their advisors at a deeper level, experience higher motivation levels and a sense of direction and confidence, and report significantly higher satisfaction with advising” (Schreiner & Anderson, p. 23). These methods do require regular, longer advising meetings with the same advisor-student pairing over time, which is not always possible at larger institutions. However, the use of technology and shared advisor notes may allow students to feel understood at a slightly higher level than before. Appreciative advising is another comparable approach that empowers students through a sense of comfort and confidence that comes from an advisor's support, knowledge of a student, and encouragement for students to challenge themselves and achieve their goals (Bloom & McClellan, 2016). As students continue to learn and grow comfortable with the content, they can approach mastery, which culminates in Bloom's Taxonomy as critiquing and creating. At this point, an advisor utilizes active advising methods when possible to give students space to demonstrate and practice what they have learned, taking agency of their academic plan and utilizing an advisor for support and information. Critical pedagogy, a method rising in popularity in the K-12 classroom and the advising office, encourages students to ask questions, engage in dialogue, participate in activism, and recognize the university system as one in flux that has room for change, growth, and equity (Puroway, 2016).

To gain new perspectives on the connections between past teaching experience and advising practice, a case study approach was used. NACADA writing group and NACADA community connections provided three advisors who had taught at the elementary or secondary level and who were willing to write short vignettes about their teaching experiences and advising practices. And as advisors with K-12 teaching experience, our reflective vignettes on teaching and advising are included as well.

Using a Narrative Case Study Format

Narratives are more important than ever as advisors aim to develop relationships with their students and to make their students feel understood. Hearing students tell their stories can put their transcripts, feelings, and goals into context for advisors and help advisors guide their students in their advising learning goals and long-term, post-college goals. Hagen (2007) referred to narrative theory in literature to argue for the use of narratives amongst academic advisors to expand and revise their advising philosophy. He introduced the “narratological advisor” as one who collects stories from their own background, their students, and their fellow advisors to inform their advising practice (p. 1). According to Hagen, the advising approach could be used between multiple parties in the advising unit; though student to advisor sharing was most popular, he also suggested that advisor to student and even advisor to advisor narrative sharing could be beneficial. Newman (2016) supported Hagen's argument, emphasizing the importance of sharing stories to humanize a student's record and better inform an advisor's chosen advising approach with each student. Newman explained that his narrative approach to advising wasn't one he was trained in during professional development sessions; instead, his interaction and participation in students' stories over time became increasingly important to his advising methods and became part of his overall advising philosophy. He wrote that “as an adviser, I become a kind of fellow-traveler on my students' journeys. Walking alongside them part of the way, I know their gait, the particular places they have stumbled, and where they made a wrong turn and worked to get back on track. Every once in a while I get to cheer them on as they reach their destination safely” (p. 1). Both Hagen's and Newman's work in exploring the narrative approach provided the spark that drives the development of the ideal methodology to investigate further experience as teacher-advisors interested in the advising as teaching approach.

Cook-Sather and Alter (2011) collected and evaluated narratives from student teachers to further explore a student teacher's unique experience holding two different positions simultaneously in the classroom. By focusing on the liminal position of student teachers as both students learning about education and teachers experiencing being students, Cook-Sather and Alter put the student teachers' narratives in dialogue with one another to provide insight into the unique point of view student teachers have regarding traditional education. Using a strategy similar to Cook-Sather and Alter, and like Hagen, this study suggests that advisors, too, can share their narratives to explore their own liminal position and provide support to fellow advisors. Student teachers were able to use their status as students as a lens with which to critique teaching and provide creative solutions to problems. The aim in this case is to explore the liminal position of teacher-advisors and their unique approaches to advising as teaching by applying an advisor-to-advisor narrative approach.

Our Narrative Approach

Teacher-advisors were emailed with information about this project, including the format of the paper, word count for the vignettes, and guiding questions. They also were asked to include the number of years of experience they have in teaching as well as in advising.

  1. What was your previous experience in teaching before becoming an advisor?

  2. How would you define advising as teaching?

  3. Where or how did you learn about pedagogy/teaching approaches in advising?

  4. In what ways has your teaching experience informed your advising philosophy/approach?

  5. In what ways do you approach advising as teaching?

  6. In what ways do you identify as a teacher in an advising role?

  7. In what ways did your prior teaching experience impact your learning curve to be an advisor?

  8. What types of professional development have you attended in your current advising position that helped you learn more about teaching or incorporate strategies about advising as teaching?

  9. Would you feel comfortable leading professional development in advising as teaching, given your experience in both fields?

After collecting these vignettes from the teacher-advisors, they were reviewed using an inductive approach to find areas of common themes. The discussion section reviews these themes, implications of the findings, and future questions.

Limitations

The narrative writers were selected through our colleges and NACADA, which limited the project findings. All of the writers are in the Eastern time zone, hold master's degrees or higher, and are certified teachers. Additionally, none of the writers identify as men or as people of color. Although these limitations in the selection of teacher-advisors likely reflect the implicit obstacles within the K-12 teaching and university advising population, further research should highlight advisors who identify as men, advisors who identify as people of color, and advisors who hold bachelor's degrees, to explore their perspectives as teacher-advisors.

Table 1 includes the length of time each teacher-advisor has spent in teaching and advising.

Table 1.

Time Teacher-Advisors Spent in Various Roles

Time Teacher-Advisors Spent in Various Roles
Time Teacher-Advisors Spent in Various Roles

Michelle Coleman

I have always enjoyed being in the in-between. While I taught high school English for three years, I was simultaneously in graduate school. Being a student while teaching reminded me of my students' experiences: their stress, their workload, and the importance of being creative. As an academic advisor, I feel that I lie in between several different positions, including teacher and advocate. I was first exposed to the concept of advising as teaching while taking an online advising theory course hosted by NACADA in an attempt to best prepare myself for this new journey. In a way, learning about Lowenstein's work in connecting teaching and advising brought me comfort—maybe I was more prepared for this than I thought! While working in the advising field for my first full year, I advised STEM students, predominantly students interested in pursuing work in health care. Given the number of requirements and extracurriculars they need to complete, I had to quickly become creative in providing my students with the information that they needed, while also incorporating lessons on stress, time management, and the overall curriculum into our short advising appointments.

I immediately resorted to my comfort zone, tapping into my “teacher brain” to create comprehensive visual how-to handouts for students on different topics, such as finding a research position in a lab. I found that my “teacher brain” was what motivated me through familiarizing myself with the vastly different appointment format rather than a class schedule. Getting to know students one-on-one, planning a peer advising program, creating a “lunch hour” drop-in session to be held every week—these creative moments reminded me of the binds that I was put in daily as a teacher. As a teacher, I became a master problem-solver, which is also what attracted me to advising: that I could take on some of my students' burdens and help them solve some of their academic problems.

However, bringing my teaching experience to advising only prepared me so far to become a satisfactory advisor. Adapting to online systems and analyzing masses of student data were skills that I enjoyed (as I have always loved technology and math), but were never skills I utilized completely in a professional context. I was unprepared to provide a wealth of information in 20-minute time slots to students I may not meet with again for another year. In teaching, there would only be 40 minutes today, but there was always tomorrow. The compactness of advising and creating a type of “lesson plan template” for appointments took much more practice than re-entering the classroom daily. This is when I learned that advising is certainly teaching, but it is so much more as well: it is also being a counselor and an educational activist, just to start.

Angie Cook

If I learned anything from my 3 years teaching third grade, it's that classroom teachers are only one piece in a much larger education puzzle. No matter the role in a child or student's life, we all have opportunities to teach and guide. I deeply value academic advising as an instrument for teaching our college students. Sure, we assist students in the logistics of their education (e.g., registering for classes), but we also have individual conversations with students where we can guide their decision-making, challenge them to self-reflect, and facilitate their self-authorship. This is a rare and valuable opportunity, and my teaching experience gave me some strategies for approaching academic advising as an educator. My insights are not necessarily profound, but I hope they help remind us that we are teachers even more than we realize.

Whether assessing student learning or helping students to set goals for their college experience, educators ask good questions. As both a teacher and an advisor, I have had ample time to practice the art. Plenty of advising theories highlight the importance of open-ended questions and supporting students' self-discovery. If we do it right, we give students an open, welcoming, and non-judgmental space to talk about their lives, the challenges they encounter academically and personally, and the successes they experience. I am thankful to teaching for helping me see value in asking the right questions, and I encourage academic advisors to give intentional practice to honing those skills.

Teachers spend a lot of time creating “the container” for learning—the culture of our classrooms, the instruments to facilitate learning, and the expectations we have for our students. As academic advisors, we also serve as the “front doors” of the institution—attending or perhaps planning orientation, showing students their resources, and guiding them through their decision-making. Classroom content represents only one piece in the college journey. Academic advisors cultivate the learning environment by aiding student belonging and socialization, connecting students to their support resources, and holding students accountable for goal-setting and planning. For all my fellow educators in academic advising, embrace your role in creating culture and establishing expectations. Students can benefit from your experience and your unique position to understand the broader educational landscape. Teaching opportunities are everywhere, especially in academic advising!

Suzanne Brokloff

In a local grocery store, a man and a woman who haven't seen each other in a while run into one another as they round the corner with their shopping carts. After they laugh and exchange a hug, they happily catch up with one another. They chat enthusiastically about their jobs, each one telling stories about helping their students by mentoring them and guiding them, clarifying for them, sometimes redirecting them. They discuss how much multi-tasking, planning, and patience their job requires, both nodding their heads with understanding. She says the payoff is wonderful when she is able to help a student finally make sense of a tough problem, but she worries about one student in particular who has repeated absences. He agrees that he loves those lightbulb moments he can see on his students' faces, but he isn't crazy about all the parents' constant questions. They lean on their carts as they share familiar emotions, both admitting they feel tired and drained, but also agreeing that the job is rewarding because they care so much about their students' successes. Reluctantly, they wrap up their conversation, say goodbye, and continue smiling as they go back to their shopping. He is a teacher. She is an academic advisor. Or…is it the other way around?

I can relate to both of the friends in this scenario because, before I was an advisor, I was a classroom teacher for 30 years. When I was in the classroom, no matter what I was teaching, I would make a point of stressing the goal of each lesson before ever starting it. Then I would break down the concepts and use illustrations and graphic organizers to get points across, putting things in context and relating them to real life whenever possible. I asked the students tons of questions and helped boost their confidence. Sometimes I could see mistakes happening—or about to happen—but with feedback and encouragement, I could help a student get over a hurdle toward improvement. I sometimes assumed a sort of motherly role in the classroom, and though I disciplined students when necessary, I also let them know that I believed in them, which helped me earn their trust and respect. I celebrated their successes by dancing in class with them often, and I offered tissues and encouragement when there were failures. Above all, I would do my best to make things fun and memorable so my students would look forward to learning and see the value in it. Could I say the exact same things are true when I am advising? Absolutely!

I identify as a teacher when I am advising because it's familiar. There are always many questions during a session and, as I strive to clarify things for students, I help them through problems and they are reminded of their goals. I feel comfortable and enjoy sitting down with students, showing them how they can navigate through their academic programs, reviewing policies and procedures, and finding solutions for their issues. The best feeling of all is when I hear an advisee breathe a huge sigh of relief and exclaim, “I always feel so much better when I have an appointment with you!”

Both teaching and advising require the ability to give to others…whether it's time, options, examples, help, a motivating chat, or an understanding smile, both teachers and advisors are able to create feelings of success because they approach students with the intent to give.

I like to think I am just as good an advisor now as I was a teacher for all those years. But I also know I am a better advisor for having been a teacher.

Kelly Matthews

Prior to my role as an advisor in higher education, I taught for a short period of time in both elementary and middle school classrooms. I see a lot of parallels between teaching and advising. I often found joy in making connections and witnessing the growth and development with the students I taught. I find a similar joy when advising students. My education and teaching experience taught me a lot about student growth and development and one of the staples I still apply to my advising practice today is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow's model reviews the basic needs people must satisfy before they will be capable of performing at their full potential. As a teacher, I found this to be true when teaching a third grader who often came in late without eating his breakfast and was unable to stay focused throughout the morning. I also witnessed this when teaching a seventh grader who was being bullied by another peer and kept his head down for the majority of the class period. In these instances, the students were unable to perform at their best due to unmet basic needs including physiological needs, belongingness, and safety. As an advisor, I've seen similar situations where unmet needs caused an impact on students' ability to reach their full potential. One instance included advising a student who failed an exam and admitted that she wasn't able to afford her textbook. Another instance involved a student who felt disconnected from the university due to limited connection with her peers, instructors, and other campus resources. In these situations, the students' ability to learn and achieve to their full potential was impacted when their basic needs were not being met. When meeting with students in these situations, I've found that the power of empathy and relationship building is so crucial in gaining students' trust and respect. Getting to know students on a personal level and being willing to listen and understand their individual circumstances before seeking to find solutions together is so essential in supporting their growth and development. I see teachers and advisors as facilitators of student growth and development. They are sometimes thought of as “experts” in their respective fields. However, I think the most influential teachers and advisors are those who empower students to become the experts of their own journeys.

Kim Charmatz

Before becoming an academic advisor, I was an elementary and middle school science teacher for 4 years. Then, I taught elementary and secondary education teaching to pre-service teachers at the college level. From my perspective, teaching at the K-12 and college levels and academic advising have many similarities. Teaching and advising both have learning outcomes, and ways to assess if students are meeting these learning outcomes. In my view, part of effective teaching and advising focus on articulating and measuring these outcomes for students.

Pedagogical approaches I incorporate in both teaching and advising are constructivist learning (Dewey, 1937) and critical pedagogy (Freire, 1970). Through constructivist learning, students develop (or construct) their own meanings versus being told what they should think or do. In critical pedagogy approaches, students learn ways to make a difference and empower themselves as members of their community and larger world through their achievements in education. In advising specifically, students may learn ways to design their own educational pathway, overcome obstacles in their education to meet those goals, and possibly even go on to a career where their occupation makes a difference in their community.

One specific example of a learning strategy based in constructivism and critical pedagogy I use in both teaching and advising is asking students open-ended questions through lessons, discussions, and assessments. These types of questions are designed to help students design their own goals, articulate what is important to them, and construct a pathway to achieving them. As a teacher, I feel well prepared to design these types of questions at different critical thinking levels for students, depending on what they need in a particular meeting, to help scaffold their learning. Through a constructivist and critical pedagogy approach, I do identify as a teacher in my role advising students.

These similarities in the goals for teaching and advising guide my advising practice with students every day. However, there are some differences between teaching and advising that have been a learning curve in the transition to becoming a full-time advisor. One is the administrative tasks that come with the advising role; advising can require more technical expertise in the use of databases to search for and document data. In addition, advisors need to be able to be a conduit between many different offices on campus, in a broader way than classroom teachers need to be. Communication skills to navigate between different offices on campus is an important skill for an advisor. There are also some additional skill sets such as counseling and social work that may come up when advising students. This makes the potential for professional development practices in advising quite dynamic and multi-faceted—through looking at the many roles advisors play based on prior career experience—with advising as teaching being a critically important one.

These teacher-advisor narratives show that prior teaching experience can influence how advisors practice advising as teaching, from utilizing the growth mindset strategy to valuing student-led discussions and building relationships. (See Table 2.)

Table 2.

Teaching Approaches Used in Advising Setting

Teaching Approaches Used in Advising Setting
Teaching Approaches Used in Advising Setting

Teaching and Learning/Instructional Strategies

Teacher-advisors identify several strategies that they learned as teachers and now apply to their advising practice. One teaching and learning strategy is the development of learning outcomes for a lesson or longer-range plans. Advisors also design learning outcomes for individual students and larger groups though planning items such as an advising syllabus. Among our narrative writers, Angie explains that helping students determine their learning outcomes using higher-order questioning involves the student in the learning process. Similarly, Suzanne emphasizes that clearly setting goals at the beginning of an advising session or semester gives a student agency within the advising session. Kim also incorporates learning outcomes in her advising approach; individualizing advising according to a student's needs and assessing their progress within the determined learning outcomes will help advisors revise their goals and revisit certain goals with students to keep them active and responsible.

Our teacher-advisors also report using Bloom's Taxonomy in both their classrooms and advising offices. Bloom's Taxonomy can be used in either educational setting to use prior knowledge and experience to build upon learning, starting from memorizing content to eventually critiquing or creating new content. Angie's use of higher-order questions, Suzanne's graphic organizers, and Michelle's handouts provide students with multiple forms of the same information, which can assist with practicing new information (reviewing the core curriculum), applying new information (practicing creating a schedule), or even thinking critically (answering higher-order questions to better understand one's career goals). Kim also urges the importance of scaffolding learning through asking open-ended questions and encouraging a student to think about their goals in contributing to their community and to overall societal change.

Multiple teacher-advisors also report that they brought their creativity from their teacher experience into their advising positions. Angie includes that getting to know students and asking open-ended, reflective questions can encourage students to develop a relationship with their advisor and become more open to active advising rather than expecting prescriptive advising. Suzanne encourages fellow advisors to encourage and support their students by having a strong rapport with them, celebrating their victories and highlighting their strengths. Michelle notes that using creativity with timing can make advising more accessible to students; for example, hosting an open group advising session can bring students together to develop a support network.

Developmental Teaching Strategies

Teacher-advisors also identify ways in which developmental teaching and learning strategies apply to both their previous teaching and current advising practices. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs acts as a reminder that students cannot achieve goals of self-actualization and confidence without basic survival needs, such as housing and food security. Throughout her years advising, Kelly has encountered students with academic challenges that have underlying causes, such as the inability to afford a textbook. Creating a safe space for students to share their stories can give advisors much more information on what students need to achieve their academic and professional goals. Additionally, teachers may encourage a growth mindset to students to encourage them to see challenges as future victories rather than evidence of failure. Using a technique such as Kelly's example of scaffolding, advisors can assist students in setting approachable goals and revisiting specific challenges to set new goals when needed. Suzanne also emphasizes that the concept of the growth mindset is highly relational; developing a relationship with students so they “[look] forward to learning [or advising]” is evidence that students feel safe and encouraged by representatives of their university.

Relationship Building

Relationship building is another area teacher-advisors identify in their teaching and advising practices. Providing social, emotional, and academic support for students can include encouraging them to utilize campus resources, creating a welcoming atmosphere in the advising unit, or developing a relationship with students to help them feel understood. Michelle's combination of intrusive advising methods and multiple forms of advising (peer advising, group advising, and individual appointments) leaves room for students to reach out to advisors as needed but also encourages fellow advisors to reach out to students who may need help. As the front doors of our institutions, advisors such as Angie encourage advisors to cultivate a safe and welcoming advising environment that can also include an advisor briefly sharing their own background and experience to develop rapport. Suzanne and Kelly also include that understanding a student's story can provide context to their record, giving advisors the ability to refer students to other campus offices to help them satisfy their physical, mental, and emotional needs. Advocacy goes together with understanding and supporting students in the classroom or in the university. Assisting students with meeting their basic survival needs (Kelly) and encouraging them to evaluate their contribution to their community (Kim) brings critical pedagogy to the advising unit.

According to the narratives, teacher-advisors can utilize teaching theories and methods in their advising practice; they have a unique perspective on the “advising as teaching” approach because of their previous experience and familiarity within education. The narrative writers use similar approaches, including the aspects of teaching that each teacher-advisor found to be a best fit for an advising practice: relating to students and providing individualized support. Further exploration into the teacher-advisor community within advising, as well as studying the use of advisor narratives, will broaden the knowledge base of advising practices.

This work is hopefully one of the first of many studies to investigate the influence of an advisor's background on their advising approach. For future investigations, we pose the following questions for our fellow advisors in research: In what ways do advisors with prior teaching experience advise differently than advisors with different backgrounds? How do advisors without teaching experience approach advising as teaching? How can we showcase our advisors' past experiences as part of their expertise in advising?

Finally, sharing narratives has the potential to expand from advisor-student discourse to advisor-to-advisor discourse. It can become adopted by inviting advisors to relate to one another through their previous educational and career experiences. Using this method, advising as teaching can expand to advisors supporting and teaching one another through their own experiences. While advisors teach and learn with their students, they also have so much of their own narratives to share with one another.

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Author notes

Michelle Coleman is the Program Advisor of the Human Biology Program at The School of Arts and Sciences at Hunter College, CUNY. She has been advising for two years, and currently works with 1,500 interdisciplinary majors interested in health sciences, research, and education. She earned a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature and Sociology as well as Master of Arts in Teaching degree for English Education (7-12) from Queens College, CUNY. Michelle taught secondary education English for three years before transitioning into advising. Her academic interests include the intersection between teaching and advising, emphasizing student advocacy in advising, and individualizing student support based on need. Michelle's advising philosophy is to provide students with the information, support, and institutional advocacy needed in order to feel prepared and empowered to navigate the higher education system. Michelle can be reached via email at: mc7576@hunter.cuny.edu.

Kim Charmatz is an Associate Director in Advising at the University of Southern Maine. She has been in the advising department for six years, where she works with undergraduate students majoring in the natural sciences and undeclared students. Her academic interests include supporting early-career STEM students, assessment practices in advising, critical pedagogy approaches in advising and teaching, and community-based environmental education. Prior to her current role, she taught elementary and middle school science, and pre-service teacher and environmental education at the college level. Kim received a Bachelor's degree in Biology from Virginia Tech, and a Master's degree in Elementary Education and a Ph.D. in Science Education from the University of Maryland. She can be reached at: kim.charmatz@maine.edu.

Angie Cook is the Associate Director of Graduate Retention Services in the College of Nursing at University of Cincinnati. Angie's professional career started in elementary education, teaching third grade in Clarksdale, Mississippi. After transitioning to higher education, Angie worked in residence life, first-year advising, transfer advising, and now in graduate advising and retention. Angie holds a Master's degree in Elementary Education from Delta State University and a Master's in Student Affairs and Higher Education from Miami University. Her work hobbies include leading a professional development community of graduate advisors across the university, teaching first-year student success courses, and presenting/publishing wherever possible on academic advising, equity and inclusion, and graduate student support. Angie can be reached at angie.cook@uc.edu.

Education has been a natural career path for Suzanne E. Brokloff, since her father was a professor at the Pennsylvania State University, and her mother was a teacher. Suzanne graduated from the Pennsylvania State University with a bachelor's degree in Communication Disorders and certification to teach the hearing impaired. She taught at both the elementary and middle school levels, later completed her master's degree in Elementary Education at Murray State University, and followed up by earning her Kentucky Rank 1 certification in Environmental Education. After a 30-year career teaching in the classroom, she has come full circle back to the Pennsylvania State University to serve the College of Education as an Academic Advisor, and is delighted to be helping to launch new educators into equally rewarding careers.

Kelly Matthews grew up in Fort Wayne, Indiana where she attended Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW) and earned her Bachelor of Science in Education with focus on elementary education and middle school mathematics and language arts. She taught middle school for a year before pursuing her passion of working with students in higher education. Kelly joined the Higher Education and Student Affairs (HESA) program at Indiana University in Bloomington and served as a Career Advisor in the School of Education while earning her Master of Science in Education. She then took on the role of Academic Advisor and Graduate Programs Coordinator at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) in the Department of Mathematical Sciences and now serves as a Lead Advisor at the Indiana University School of Medicine. Kelly has 12 years of professional experience in higher education. She can be reached at: kahouser@iu.edu.