The aim of this study was to use ultrasonography to evaluate the effect of the self-assembling peptide P11-4 on acid erosion prevention. Curodont Repair (CR), which includes peptide P11-4, was used. Rectangular prisms of bovine enamel (4×1×1 mm) were immersed in pure orange juice for a period of 5 minutes six times per day for 28 days. These samples were divided into four groups of six specimens each and treated differently for an additional period of 28 days: 1) baseline group specimens were stored in artificial saliva; 2) CR group specimens were exposed to curodont without acid challenge; 3) NCRA (no curodont+acid challenge) specimens were treated with orange juice without curodont exposure; and 4) CRA (CR+acid challenge) specimens were treated with curodont before treatment with orange juice. The propagation time of longitudinal ultrasonic velocity (UV) was measured. Ultrastructural observation of each tested enamel surface was carried out using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UV data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance with time and treatment as confounding factors. Post hoc pairwise tests among groups were performed using the Tukey honestly significant difference test. The average UV in intact bovine enamel for the baseline group ranged from 4,483 to 4,549 m/s and did not vary significantly within the test period. The average ultrasonic velocity (UV) in all samples decreased after the initial erosion. The UV in NCRA decreased further over time. Increased UVs were found for CR and CRA. For CR and CRA, there was no significant difference in UV at the end of the experiment from the initial value before erosion. In the results of SEM observation, the CR and CRA groups had similar morphologic features in that etching patterns were not clearly due to precipitation between the enamel rods. From the results of this in vitro study, it might be concluded that applying enamel matrix derivatives and self-assembling peptides on erosive lesions can improve remineralization.

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