This study evaluated the effect of shortened application time on long-term bond strength with universal adhesives.

Methods and Materials:

Three universal adhesives were used: Clearfil Universal Bond (CU, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc, Tokyo, Japan), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SB, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) or G-Premio Bond (GP, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Sixty molars were cut to expose midcoronal dentin and prepared with a regular diamond bur. Each adhesive was applied either according to the manufacturer's instruction or with shortened time. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and then cut into resin-dentin sticks. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was tested after either 24 hours or 1 year of water storage. Data were analyzed by the three-way ANOVA and Duncan tests (α=0.05). Fracture modes were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). One dentin stick per group was selected after fracture mode analysis and further observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Six additional dentin discs were prepared and conditioned with each adhesive under the different application time to observe the adhesive-smear layer interaction by SEM.


Shortened application time affected the μTBS (p<0.001) while storage time did not affect bond strength (p=0.187). A significant effect of shortened application time on μTBS was observed in the CU at 1 year and in the GP at both storage times.


One-year storage time had no effect on the μTBS of universal adhesives to bur-cut dentin. The performance of universal adhesives can be compromised when applied using a shortened application time.

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