It has been reported that bleaching generates an increase in the activity of osteoclasts in vitro. We quantified the RANK-L and IL-1β biomarkers in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial evaluating the in vivo effect of hydrogen peroxide (35%) and peroxide carbamide (37%) six months after whitening.

Methods and Materials:

Fifty volunteers participated, each with color change in a nonvital tooth. Fifty teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n=25), and the teeth were bleached using either 35% hydrogen peroxide (G1) or 37% carbamide peroxide (G2). Intracoronal bleaching was carried out by a technical “walking bleach” over four sessions. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected and used to quantify the IL-1β and RANK-L secreted levels. Samples of six periodontal sites (three vestibular and three palatal) were collected for up to six months (at the beginning of the study [baseline] and at one week, one month, and six months posttreatment). The color change was visually monitored using the Vita Bleached Guide (ΔSGU).


Comparing each time to baseline assessment, a significant increase in the levels of IL-1β and RANK-L across time points was detected (p<0.05). The color change was 4 in G1 and G2, and a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was found at the month time point between the groups. Using the Spearman test, a strong correlation (>0.8) between the IL-1β and RANK-L levels in both groups at all time points was detected.


Nonvital bleaching using a technical walking bleach induces an increase in the IL-1β and RANKL production in periodontal tissues, which persists for six months after treatment. Both biomarkers were highly correlated in both groups and at all time points.

You do not currently have access to this content.