Clinical Relevance

New dual-cure bulk-fill composites show promise for uniform degree of conversion and microhardness throughout the entire depth of direct restorations.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) through micro-Raman spectroscopy and surface microhardness in Vickers hardness (VHN) of three new dual-cure bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) compared with light-cure bulk-fill and incremental RBCs at two clinically relevant depths and for two light irradiation times.


Three commercially available restorative dual-cure bulk-fill RBCs (BulkEZ, HyperFIL, and Injectafil) were evaluated and compared with three light-cure RBCs (Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable, Filtek One Bulk Fill, and incremental Filtek Z250) as controls. Specimens were prepared in two different depths (0.5 mm and 5 mm) and were light irradiated for 20 seconds or 40 seconds. Self-cure was also evaluated for the three dual-cure bulk-fill RBCs. Micro-Raman spectroscopic measurements and VHN tests (n=5) were made after 24 hours of dry storage in the dark at room temperature for all test conditions. Data were analyzed using one-way and two-way analyses of variance (α=0.05).


All tested RBCs showed significantly higher DC and VHN values at 0.5-mm depth than at 5-mm depth, with the exception of BulkEZ, which showed similar DC and VHN values at two depths. The three dual-cure bulk-fill RBCs showed significantly higher DC than the three light-cure RBCs under the same curing condition. The three dual-cure RBCs showed much smaller differences in VHN values between the two depths than the three light-cure RBCs. Twenty seconds and 40 seconds of light irradiation did not generate significant difference in DC and VHN values for the three dual-cure bulk-fill RBCs at either depth or for the three light-cure RBCs at the 0.5-mm depth; however, 40 seconds of light irradiation generated significantly higher DC and VHN values for One Bulk Fill and Z250 at the 5-mm depth compared with 20 seconds of light irradiation.

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