Clinical Relevance

As temporary materials are often used in prosthetic dentistry, there is need to investigate their behavior in the oral environment. Parameters such as surface roughness and surface free energy correlate to the level of plaque adhesion, which can impact gingival health.


To test computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-fabricated and conventionally processed polymer-based temporary materials in terms of radiopacity (RO), surface free energy (SFE), surface roughness (SR), and plaque accumulation (PA).

Methods and Materials:

Six temporary materials (n=10/n=10) were tested, including three CAD/CAM-fabricated (CC) materials—Art Bloc Temp (CC-ABT), Telio CAD (CC-TC), and VITA CAD Temp (CC-VCT)—and three conventionally processed (cp) materials: Integrity Multi Cure (cp-IMC), Luxatemp Automix Plus (cp-LAP), and Protemp 4 (cp-PT4). Zirconia acted as the control group (CG, n=10). RO was evaluated according to DIN EN ISO 13116. SFE was investigated using contact angle measurements. SR was measured using a profilometer. The PA tests were performed using three microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Veillonella parvula. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U-, Dunn-Bonferroni, Wilcoxon, Levene, and Pearson tests and one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Scheffé test (α=0.05).


No radiopacity was observed for any CC material or cp-PT4. CG showed the highest RO, while no differences between cp-IMC and cp-LAP were found. CG showed lower SFE compared to all polymer temporary materials, except in the case of CC-TC. cp-LAP and cp-IMC presented higher SFE than did CC-TC and CG. CC-ABT presented lower initial SR values compared to cp-PT4 and cp-LAP. For cp-LAP, a higher initial SR was measured than for all CAD/CAM materials and cp-IMC. All specimens showed a certain amount of PA after the incubation period. A naeslundii and V parvula resulted in comparable PA values, whereas the values for S mutans were lower by one log level. CAD/CAM materials showed superior results for SR, SFE, and PA, whereas all materials lacked RO.

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