Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) composite resins are susceptible to degradation by dietary solvents. Dietary counselling is prudent when placing such CAD/CAM restorations.
This study determined the effect of dietary solvents on the surface roughness (Ra) of direct, indirect, and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) dental composites. The materials evaluated were a direct composite (Filtek Z350 XT [FZ]), an indirect composite (Shofu Ceramage [CM]), and four CAD/CAM composites (Lava Ultimate [LU], Shofu Block HC [HC], Cerasmart [CS], and Vita Enamic [VE]). Specimens (12×14×1.5 mm) of each material were prepared, measured for baseline Ra, ranked, divided into six groups (n=12), and conditioned in the following media for 1 week at 37°C: air (control), distilled water, 0.02 N citric acid, 0.02 N lactic acid, heptane, and 50% ethanol-water solution. The composite specimens were then subjected to postconditioning Ra testing using an optical three-dimensional surface analyzer (G4e, Alicona Imaging GmbH, Raaba, Austria). Inter-medium and inter-material comparisons were performed with one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni test at a significance level of α=0.05. Mean Ra values ranged from 0.086 ± 0.004 μm to 0.153 ± 0.005 μm for the various material/medium combinations. For all materials, conditioning in air (control) and distilled water generally resulted in significantly lower mean Ra than exposure to other dietary solvents. Conditioning in citric acid presented the roughest surfaces for FZ, CM, and CS. For LU, HC, and VE, exposure to lactic acid, heptane, and ethanol solution resulted in the highest mean Ra. Regardless of conditioning media, FZ had the highest and VE the lowest mean Ra compared with other composites. The CAD/CAM composites remained susceptible to surface degradation by dietary solvents despite their industrial polymerization.