The aim of this study was to determine the flexural properties and surface characteristics of a structural colored resin composite after different finishing and polishing methods, in comparison to those of conventional resin composites.
A structural color resin composite, Omnichroma (OM, Tokuyama Corp, Chiyoda City, Tokyo, Japan), and two comparison resin composites, Filtek Supreme Ultra (FS, 3M, St Paul, MN, USA) and Tetric EvoCeram (TE, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), were used. The flexural properties of the resin composites were determined in accordance with the ISO 4049 specifications. For surface properties, 70 polymerized specimens of each resin composite were prepared and divided into seven groups of 10. Surface roughness (Sa), gloss (GU), and surface free energy (SFE) were investigated after the following finishing and polishing methods. Three groups of specimens were finished with a superfine-grit diamond bur (SFD), and three with a tungsten carbide bur (TCB). After finishing, one of the two remaining groups was polished with a one-step silicone point (CMP), and the other with an aluminum oxide flexible disk (SSD). A group ground with SiC 320-grit was set as a baseline.
The average flexural strength ranged from 116.6 to 142.3 MPa in the following order with significant differences between each value: FS > TE > OM. The average E ranged from 6.8 to 13.2 GPa in the following order with significant differences between each value: FS > TE > OM. The average R ranged from 0.77 to 1.01 MJ/mm3 in the following order: OM > FS > TE. The Sa values of the OM groups polished with CMP and SSD were found to be significantly lower than those of the other resin composites, regardless of the finishing method. The GU values appeared to be dependent on the material and the finishing method used. The OM specimens polished with SSD showed significantly higher GU values than those polished with CMP. Most of the resin composites polished with SSD demonstrated significantly higher γS values compared to the other groups. Extremely strong negative correlations between Sa and GU in the combined data from the three resin composites and each resin composite and between Sa and γS in the OM specimens were observed; GU showed a strong positive correlation with γS in the same material.
These findings indicate that both flexural and surface properties are material dependent. Furthermore, the different finishing and polishing methods used in this study were observed to affect the Sa, GU, and SFE of the resin composites.