The first objective was to determine if the dual-curing of self-adhesive resin cement (SAC) with reduced light penetrating through zirconia had an effect on interfacial gap of zirconia restorations. The second purpose was to examine whether pretreatment methods for universal adhesive affected interfacial gap. The last aim was to compare the microhardness of SAC polymerized under different zirconia thicknesses.

Methods and Materials

This study evaluated self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE) after different pretreatment with universal adhesive (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE) under different polymerization conditions. CAD/CAM inlay cavities were prepared on extracted third molars. Translucent zirconia restorations were milled using Katana UTML (Kuraray). The teeth were divided into three groups: Groups I, II, and III in which the restoration thicknesses were 1, 2, and 3 mm. Each Group had three subgroups according to different pretreatment methods. For subgroup-1, no pretreatment was done on the prepared cavity. For subgroup-2, universal adhesive was applied and light-cured before cement placement (precure method). For subgroup-3, universal adhesive was applied; however, light-curing was done after cement placement (cocure method). After thermo-cycling, the interfacial gap at the restoration-tooth interface was investigated using swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging. Finally, microhardness was measured for SAC under different zirconia thicknesses. For statistical analysis, the interfacial gap was analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test the effect of cavity depth and pretreatment. In terms of each cavity depth and pretreatment, the interfacial gap was compared using one-way ANOVA and Scheffe’s test. One-way ANOVA was also performed for comparison of the Vickers hardness results.


Different thicknesses of the restoration resulted in differences in interfacial gaps except between the precure method of Groups I and II (p<0.05). The effect of universal adhesive pretreatment was different depending on the restoration thickness with exceptions in Groups I and III (p<0.05). Vickers hardness number decreased as the low radiant exposure of light was applied (p<0.05).


Interfacial gap of zirconia restorations can differ depending on the material thickness, pretreatment, and activation mode. Reduced light intensity penetrating through zirconia may lead to higher interfacial gap percentage and lower microhardness of the self-adhesive resin cement. Application of a universal adhesive showed similar or reduced interfacial gaps in the cement space.

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