Bulk-fill resin composite is commonly used in direct restorations. It is recommended that the high-viscosity version of these materials be preheated to improve flowability and adaptability. It is unknown what effects preheating (PH) might have on the wear resistance and color stability of these resin composites. This study compared the wear and color stability of high-viscosity bulk-fill and conventional resin composites with and without PH, using the CIEDE2000 formula.

Methods and Materials

Thirty-two disc-shaped specimens (n=16, 10×3 mm) were prepared with Filtek One Bulk Fill Restorative (FOBFR; 3M ESPE) and Filtek Supreme Ultra (FSU, 3M ESPE) to determine wear. Each group was divided into subgroups based on preparation conditions, that is, PH and room temperature (RT) (n=8). Thermomechanical fatigue was applied to specimens, and volumetric material loss was calculated using a laser scanner (LAS-20, SD Mechatronik, Feldkirchen-Westerham, Germany) and three-dimensional imaging software (Geomagic, 3D Systems, Rock Hill, SC, USA). An additional 124 disc-shaped specimens (n=64, 10×1 mm) were prepared with FOBFR and FSU, and subgroups were formed based on preparation conditions (PH and RT, n=32). Specimens were aged for 14 days in coffee, grape juice, distilled water, and thermocycling (20,000 cycles, 5°C–55°C). To determine color change, the lightness (L), chroma (C), and hue (H) values were measured at baseline and after 14 days using the CIEDE2000 formula. All data were statistically analyzed, and a 95% significance level was set.


In both the PH and RT groups, FSU exhibited greater wear than FOBFR (p<0.05). Both materials were subjected to increased wear as a result of PH. After aging, a significant difference in color change was observed (p<0.05) when controlling for time and resin composite type, except for deionized water and thermocycling (p>0.05). PH had no effect on the color stability of the resin composite at any time (p<0.05).


The high-viscosity bulk-fill resin composite displayed superior wear resistance and similar color stability compared with its conventional counterpart. PH resin composite may increase its susceptibility to wear and has no effect on its color stability.

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